There can be little doubt that the failure of Rudolf Hess’ peace mission to Britain on the eve of the attack on Russia created the unwanted two-front war that cost Hitler the victory. After the failure of Hess’s ill-fated flight, his place in the Nazi hierarchy was taken by Martin Bormann.
Ten Days To Destiny: The Secret Story Of The Hess Peace Initiative And British Efforts To Strike A Deal With Hitler
John Costello is a Cambridge-educated historian who has spent eight years researching "Ten Days to Destiny". He is the author of a number of books, including "The Mask of Treachery", "The Pacific War", and the prize winning national best seller "And I Was There". He lives in New York City.
Some Nazi leaders, including Himmler and Bormann, became uncertain of victory and began laying plans for their survival.
They also turned to science for new 'Wunderwaffen', or wonder weapons, that might turn the tide of war in their favor.
Nazi Wonder Weapon
Just six days after the D-Day Invasion of Europe, on 12 June 1944, the residents of London were startled to hear a droning buzz in the skies over their city. They were more startled when the sound suddenly stopped and moments later a huge explosion rocked the East London neighborhood of Mile End, killing eight civilians.
It was the first of the V-1 Buzz bombs - a forerunner of today’s cruise missiles
The V-1 and the later V-2 rockets that terrorized London are two of the more famous examples of German war technology. These Vergeltungswaffe, or retaliation weapons, were developed at the secret German rocket facility Peenemünde and put into operation just after the D-Day landings in Normandy, France.
From 12 June 1944, until 20 August, more than eight thousand of the V-1 rockets (each carrying a ton of explosives) rained down on London, inflicting 45,479 casualties and destroying 75,000 buildings. The less numerous V-2 rockets - which, unlike the V-1, could not be seen, heard, or intercepted in flight - nevertheless produced more than 10,000 casualties in the British capital.
In addition to the vengeance weapons, the Germans produced a number of scientific breakthroughs in their quest for weapons technology during World War II. German ingenuity and efficiency appeared capable of overcoming almost any obstacle. One clear example may be found simply by comparing figures from its armaments industry. Despite constant bombing by the Allies, overall production of tanks, small arms, ships, and aircraft was higher at the beginning of 1945 than in 1941, when Germany was victorious on all fronts and America had not yet entered the war.
After the Battle of Britain, Germany's air domination over Europe began to decline, sliding down a slippery slope which ultimately resulted in one major reason for its defeat. German means of industrial, arms, and energy production became increasing venerable to attack by Allied bombers. The munitions plants needed to produce the arms to maintain the war effort, such as tanks, airplanes and cannons were all targets of Allied air bombardment. Likewise, high priority targets included oil production and refining facilities which produced the fuel and lubricants needed to make the war effort possible.
One way Germany responded to air attacks was by moving munitions facilities and high-value industrial plants underground. Some of these facilities were vast, encompassing miles of underground tunnels. They housed both the industrial means of war production and the workers themselves.
In addition to underground facilities, camouflage was used to hide numerous smaller facilities. These many camouflaged and underground plants formed a web of sub-assembly producers. Each sub-assembly facility sent their product to a larger or a more centrally located facility for further work. From there it might be transported again for final assembly. As an example, Type XXI U-boats were modular, being produced in pipe-like sections throughout Germany. They were transported by rail to sites near the North Sea and only finally assembled at water's edge. Likewise, some types of aircraft were only finally assembled near the runway.
Further confusing Allied air intelligence, the plants were constantly moving. Eventually everything of value was to be moved underground, to bomb-proof shelters. Facilities were kept on the move until space was available for this underground re-location. These tactics worked for the Germans. There were simply too many moving targets for the Allies to completely stop German war production.
Of course the weak link in this scheme was transportation. The railroad system was the only practical and most energy efficient method of moving all these sub-assemblies. Trucking material was done but in a petroleum-starved Third Reich, it was not possible to sustain a truck-based transportation system necessary to meet all the requirements of wartime Germany. Recognizing this, the Allies bombed railroad centers using the heavy, four-engine B-17 bombers.
By mid-1943 the American P-51 Mustang was introduced into the field of play. This aircraft could be thought of as a Spitfire which could fly for eight hours. Its range allowed it to escort Allied bombers to their targets throughout the Reich. After escorting the bombers to their targets the P-51s were released to attack "targets of opportunity". A P-51 can fly close to the ground and attack individual trains, which they did.
By mid-1944, it is a wonder that any trains within Germany could move at all. Some were forced to hide in mountain tunnels, as they did near the Jonas Valley, running at night or when there were no enemy aircraft reported.
As a result of these day and night air attacks, Germany found itself increasingly the victim of shortages of material and fuel, limiting its ability to make war.
Though Germany's air defense system was the best of any warring nation, it was clear that if Germany was to survive, improvement was imperative.
The Germans already had jet and rocket interceptors and was experimenting with radically new types of air defense systems. Anti-aircraft rockets, guided both from the ground and by infra-red homing devices were invented. Vortex cannons, sun cannons, air-explosive turbulence bombs, rockets trailing long wire to ensnare enemy propellers, numerous electronic jamming devices, and electronic devices designed to stop ignition-based engines were all under development as the conflict ended.
The Germans already had jet and rocket interceptors and was experimenting with radically new types of air defense systems. Anti-aircraft rockets, guided both from the ground and by infra-red homing devices were invented. Vortex cannons, sun cannons, air-explosive turbulence bombs, rockets trailing long wire to ensnare enemy propellers, numerous electronic jamming devices, and electronic devices designed to stop ignition-based engines were all under development as the conflict ended.
As the conflict drew to its conclusion, military planners in Germany considered the idea of concentrating their ground and air defenses into specific fortresses for a last stand. This would buy them time. They needed time to perfect new "Siegerswaffen", super-weapons so powerful that they could turn the course of the war for Germany by themselves.
A mountain fortress or "Alpenfestung" was to be set up in the German held areas of Northern Italy, Austria and Germany in roughly the areas in which these countries converged with each other and Switzerland. A fortress was to be set up in the Harz Mountains of Thruingia including several large underground complexes. This would extend from Nordhausen in the north down through Kahla and into the Jonas Valley. Another similar fortress complex was scheduled for the Owl Mountains separating Poland from Czechoslovakia including "Der Riese". Another fortress was to be set up in the Black Forest of Southern Germany. Other minor islands of resistance were to be set up in Norway, the Bohemian forest and the Bavarian forest.
These fortifications were to house soldiers, mostly SS units. They would also provide underground hangers and bomb-proof overhangs for aircraft take-offs and landings. Missiles, such as the V-l and V-2, and other weapons were to be mass produced there and fired automatically, right off the automated assembly line. Exotic weaponry was to be employed, along with especially trained mountain troops, defending the mountain passes into these fortresses.
History tells us the Alpenfestung never actually happened. It did not happen because German construction was simply not able to make these places ready in time. What is important for us to realize is that the weaponry for these fortresses was being developed as the Second World War drew to a close. Few of these weapons reached the operational stage but many were in various stages of development.
Technological advances were seen in almost every area. The rate and quality was astounding.
Plastics, which only came into general use in the United States during the 1950s, were developed in Nazi Germany. Bakelite, polystyrene (under the name Trolitul), Plexiglas, Polyethylene (forerunner of today’s plastic Baggies and syringes), polyamide (Nylon), and Aldols (a derivative of Polyvinyl) were all produced during wartime.
The various forms of plastic were produced under a consortium of companies but led by I.G. Farben, which also in 1941 synthesized the opiate methadone and Demerol under the name “Pethidine.”
Television, which most Americans did not get to see until the early 1950s, was highly developed in Nazi Germany. More than 150,000 persons in twenty-eight public viewing rooms in Berlin saw clear television broadcasts of the 1936 Olympics.
They watched screens equipped with Fernseh 180-line cathode ray tube projectors that presented a picture about forty-eight by forty-two inches. In 1939, the German firm Fernseh began developing a miniaturized TV system that allowed pilots to guide both bombs and missiles after launching.
This system was used in the anti-aircraft rocket Wasserfall, or waterfall.
“Many of these tests failed,” noted author Joseph P. Farrell. “But by the war’s end, a successful test of the television-guided ‘Tonne’ missile was conducted by German scientists for the Allies in Berlin, with the target being a photograph of a little girl’s face. The test was successful, much to the impressed, and doubtless shocked, Allied observers.”
Tanks, which began the war as little more than armor-plated bulldozers designed to support infantry, were developed into independent, thickly armored machines powered by gas turbines, with guns stabilized while moving, hydrokinetic power transmissions, and defenses against chemical and biological attacks.
| Panther G - Night Fighting Tank|
Some few Panthers were equipped with special infrared devices for night combat. The "Heereswaffenamt" WaPrüf 8, in cooperation with the AEG was dealing with this kind of optical equipment since 1936, but development was discontinued and the decision to further investigate in this area was not made until the Allies gained total air superiority in 1943. From now on much energy was invested in the project.
The results of these investigations, which were lead by Ministerialrat Dr.-Ing. H.Gärtner Heereswaffenamt/WaPrüf 8, were, that in 1943 the Wehrmacht equipped some few Panthers with 200 watt infra-red searchlights FG 1250 and a BIWA (Bildwandler - image converter), which converted the infra-red image into a visible reproduction. In the first tests at the armoured forces school at Fallingbostel (North Germany) near Hannover the crews trained to drive and to aim at night. Admittedly the searchlight, in combination with the infrared receiver/gun sight, had a range of up to 600 meters in clear weather at night, limiting the long range advantage of the excellent KwK42 75mm/L70.
Because of this reason the developers mounted an even greater 600mm searchlight on a halftrack, the Sd.Kfz. 251/20 "UHU", which was intended to be attached to each platoon to enhance the Night Fighting range of the platoon.
Night Fighting Panthers in Action
In the summer 1944 the Panthers of 3.Kompanie, 24th Panzerregiment, 116th Panzerdivision, were equipped with UHU on the battle/excercise-area Bergen, and actually trained in the use of the night fighting concept SPERBER. Hitler planned the mission of this Kompanie to be during the Operation WACHT AM RHEIN [Battle of the Bulge] and actually some squads were transferred to the western front, but never saw action there.
Starting on 15 January 1945 all Panthers were to be outfitted with the FG 1250.
Some German tanks were so far ahead of their time, they were still being utilized in other nations as late as battles in the 1970s.
To counter the threat of modern tanks, the Germans developed simple, but very effective, portable rocket launchers armed with a hollow charge such as the Panzerschreck bazooka and the easily produced Panzerfaust, a forerunner of today’s hand-carried rocket-propelled grenade (RPG).
The innovative 9-mm German MP-40 Schmeisser machine pistol saw extensive use during the war, and its successors, the MP-43 and the MP- 44 assault rifles, became the forerunners of today’s ubiquitous AK-47.
Late in the war, some MP-44s carried an early but effective night-vision light and scope called the Vampir.
|"Vampir" ZG 1229 Infrared System|
The Vampir was not the first German Infrared System, but by the end of the war in 1945 it was the most compact and advanced system they had. The technology itself dates back to around the start of the war, when engineers developed the first infrared rangefinder for German light anti-tank artillery. This was improved and some heavier direct-fire artillery was equipped with it as well. By 1944 the Germans had developed a version flexible enough to be mounted on the Panther tank (Germany's most technologically advanced and complex tank) and by the last year of the war were ready to issue the man-portable Vampir system.
The Vampir system consisted of a "black" spot light, one component of its active infrared system, fixed atop the impressive StG-44 assault rifle. Below this infrared light was a range finder that could detect the light emitted by the IR lamp. Since this light was invisible to anyone not equipped with the system it gave a massive edge over relying on flashlights and flares for illumination. The system mounted on the gun was linked by insulated wire to a heavy battery pack and simple control box that the soldier wore in place of his normal gear’ a very crude analog to today's "OICW" system being developed by the United States. It could transform a normal soldier to one capable of fighting in complete darkness, be it a cave or a moonless night, without revealing his position.
There is dispute over whether or not the Vampir was actually issued to combat soldiers. Some reports claim it was given to special units of the Waffen-SS for testing, others claim it was issued to crews of the similarly equipped Panther.
At the end of the war in 1945, American military intelligence officers were shocked by the technology they found as Allied forces overran German research facilities.
Supersonic rockets, nerve gas, jet aircraft , guided missiles, stealth technology, hardened armor - even flying saucers - were just some of the groundbreaking technologies being developed in Nazi laboratories, workshops, and factories. To give some idea of the aspirations of Nazi scientists, the huge ME-264 was dubbed the “Amerika Bomber,” while a three-stage rocket was named the “Mars Rocket.”
As respected British historian Barrie Pitt noted, "[T]he Nazi war machine swung into action utilizing as much as it could of the most up-to-date scientific knowledge available, and as the war developed, the list of further achievements grew to staggering proportions. From guns firing ‘shells’ of air to detailed discussions of flying saucers; from beams of sound that were fatal to a man at 50 yards, to guns that fired around corners and others that could ‘see in the dark’ - the list is awe-inspiring in its variety."
Pitt stated that while some German technology was less developed than imagined at the time, "some were dangerously near to a completion stage which could have reversed the war’s outcome."
Former Polish military journalist Igor Witkowski described German wartime research as "the greatest technological leap in the history of our civilization."
He said the Germans ignored Einstein and developed an approach to science based on quantum theories.
"Don’t forget that Einsteinian physics, relativity physics, with its big-picture view of the universe, represented Jewish science to the Nazis. Germany was where quantum mechanics was born. The Germans were looking at gravity [and other matters] from a different perspective to everyone else. Maybe it gave them answers to things that pro-relativity scientists hadn’t even thought of," explained Witkowski, who had unprecedented access to German wartime documents that only recently because available, due to the collapse of communism.
Consider that at the beginning of the war, aircraft were made of canvas stretched over a wooden frame. By 1945, Germany had become the first nation in the world to put into service an all-metal, jet-propelled jet fighter - the Messerschmitt-262.
They also produced the world’s first operational helicopter and vertical takeoff and landing aircraft .
As German scientists worked feverishly to perfect the V-2 rockets and other, more secret weapons, SS chief Heinrich Himmler was taking steps to separate his SS from normal party and state control. "In the spring of 1944 Hitler approved Himmler’s proposal to build an SS-owned industrial concern in order to make the SS permanently independent of the state budget," wrote Nazi armaments minister Albert Speer.
Employing methods later used by the CIA, SS leaders created a number of business fronts and other organizations - many using concentration camp labor - with an eye toward producing revenue to support SS activities. These highly compartmentalized groups headed by young, ambitious SS officers neither required nor desired any connection with Germany’s high-profile leaders. Their purpose was to create an economic base that could continue pursuing Nazi goals long after the defeat of Germany.
Armaments minister Speer conceded that there were weapons development programs that he knew nothing about. He admitted that an SS scheme in 1944 to construct a secret weapons plant requiring 3,500 concentration camp workers had been concealed from him. Speer even hinted at the possibility of secret weapons that "were secretly produced by the SS toward the end of the war and concealed from me."
While the V-2 rocket program began under the aegis of the German Army, and the ME-262 jet fighter under the Luftwaffe, they were ultimately transferred to SS control.
"In short, anything that had shown any real promise as a weapon system - in particular, anything that appeared to represent a quantum leap over the then- state-of-the-art - had ended up under the oversight of the SS," noted Nick Cook, an aviation editor and aerospace consultant to "Jane’s Defence Weekly".
With secret projects in the hands of hardcore SS fanatics, and with factories and research facilities scattered over - and under - the countryside, it is entirely conceivable that weapons far in advance of the V rockets could have been developed without the knowledge of anyone except Himmler and his top lieutenants.
Other notable secret Nazi weapons nearing completion in 1945 included the Messerschmitt-163 Komet and the vertically launched Natter rocket fighters, the jet-powered flying wing Horten Ho-IX and the delta-winged Lippisch DM-1. It has been noted that some of top-secret Nazi weaponry development was moved outside Germany, to such places as Blizna, Poland - the same area where Allied aircrews first encountered the infamous “foo-fighters,” small glowing balls of light that shadowed Allied bombers.
The “foo-fighters” soon caught the attention of the American news media. "The New York Times", on 13 December 1944, reported news authorized by the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force. "Floating Mystery Ball Is New Nazi Air Weapon," read the headline.
The story stated: "Airmen of the American Air Force report that they are encountering silver-colored spheres in the air over German territory. The spheres are encountered either singly or in clusters. Sometimes they are semi- translucent.
"The new device, apparently an air defense weapon, resembles the huge glass balls that adorn Christmas trees. There was no information available as to what holds them up like stars in the sky, what is in them or what their purpose is supposed to be."
According to author Renato Vesco, the “foo-fighters" were actually the Feuerball, or fire ball, which was, "a highly original flying machine... circular and armored, more or less resembling the shell of a tortoise, and was powered by a special turbojet engine, also flat and circular, whose principles of operation... generated a great halo of luminous flames.... Radio-controlled at the moment of takeoff, it then automatically followed enemy aircraft, attracted by their exhaust flames, and approached close enough without collision to wreck their radar gear."
Vesco claimed that the basic principles of the Feuerball were later applied to a "symmetrical circular aircraft" known as the Kugelblitz, or ball lightning, automatic fighter that became an "authentic antecedent of the present- day flying saucers."
He said this innovative craft was destroyed after a "single lucky wartime mission" by retreating SS troops.
Even though the public has been conditioned for more than sixty years to dismiss any notion of flying saucers, or UFOs, the accumulation of evidence available today makes it impossible to reject the reality of such craft out of hand. Obviously, the Nazis were experimenting with new and exotic energy technology. The extraordinary development of the Feuerball may have provided the first public glimpse into the heart of Nazi super-science.
Several writers have produced articles about the Nazi development of flying saucers. British author W. A. Harbinson claimed that he got his ideas after discovering postwar German articles mentioning a former Luftwaffe engineer, Flugkapitän Rudolf Schriever.
According to information gleaned by Harbinson from articles in "Der Spiegel", "Bild am Sonntag", "Luftfahrt International", and other German publications, Schriever claimed to have designed a "flying top" prototype in 1941, which was actually test-flown in June 1942.
In 1944, Schriever said he constructed a larger, jet version of his circular craft, with the help of scientists Klaus Habermohl, Otto Miethe, and an Italian, Dr. Giuseppe Belluzzo.
Drawings of this saucer were published in the 1959 British book "German Secret Weapons of the Second World War and Their Later Development", by Major Rudolf Lusar, an engineer who worked in the German Reichs-Patent Office and had access to many original plans and documents. Lusar described the saucer as a ring of separate disks carrying adjustable jets rotating around a fixed cockpit. The craft could fly vertically or horizontally, depending on the positioning of the jets.
Rudolf Lusar's book contains less than two pages of text in the section headed 'Flying Saucers', but its influence has been quite remarkable. Here, in full, is the text of that brief section:
"Habermohl and Schriever chose a wide-surface ring which rotated round a fixed, cupola-shaped cockpit. The ring consisted of adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off' or horizontal flight. respectively. Miethe developed a discus-shaped plate of a diameter of 42m in which adjustable jets were inserted. Schriever and Habermohl, who worked in Prague, took off with the first "flying disc'' on 14 February 1945. Within three minutes they climbed to an altitude of I2,400m and reached a speed of 2,000 km/h in horizontal flight. It was intended ultimately to achieve speeds of 4,000 km/h.
"Extensive preliminary tests and research were necessary before construction could be started. Because of the great speed and the extraordinary heat stress, special heat-resisting materials had to be found. The development, which cost millions, was almost completed at the end of the war. The then existing models were destroyed but the plant in Breslau where Miethe worked fell into the hands of the Russians who took all the material and the experts to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is being successfully continued.
Schriever later said the Allied advance into Germany put an end to his "flying disc" experiments, with all equipment and designs lost or destroyed. However, a Georg Klein told the postwar German press that he had witnessed the Schriever disc, or something like it, test-flown in February 1945.
Schriever reportedly died in the late 1950s and, according to a 1975 issue of "Luftfahrt International", notes and sketches related to a large flying saucer were found in his effects. The periodical also stated that Schriever maintained until his death that his original saucer concept must have been made operational prior to war’s end.
This possibility is acknowledged by British author Brian Ford, who wrote, "There are supposed to have been 'flying saucers' too, which were near the final stages of development, and indeed it may be that some progress was made toward the construction of small, disc-like aircraft, but the results were destroyed, apparently before they fell into enemy hands."
These accounts would seem to be corroborated by a CIA report dated 27 May 1954. As reported in Nick Redfern’s 1998 book, "The FBI Files: The FBI’s UFO Top Secrets Exposed", the document stated, "A German newspaper (not further identified) recently published an interview with Georg Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of 'flying saucers' carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted ‘flying saucer’ took off and reached a speed of 1,300 miles per hour within three minutes.
"The experiments resulted in three designs - one designed by Miethe was a disk- shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another, designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the center of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the ‘flying saucer’ project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants.
"Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the USA at present."
Another candidate for inventor of a German UFO is the Austrian scientist Victor Schauberger, who, after being kidnapped by the Nazis, reportedly designed a number of "flying discs" in 1940, using a flameless and smokeless form of electromagnetic propulsion called “diamagnetism.”
Schauberger reportedly worked for the U.S. government for a short time after the war before dying of natural causes. Prior to his death, he was quoted as saying, "They took everything from me. Everything." No one knows for certain if he meant the Nazis or the Allies.
That someone was flying highly unconventional disc-shaped objects shortly after World War II was made plain by the now-public comments of U.S. Army Lieutenant General Nathan Twining, then in charge of the Army Air Forces’ Air Material Command (AMC).
In mid-1947, two years after the war ended, “flying saucers” were being reported both in Europe and America. General Twining wrote that the "phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious."
He went on to describe attributes of such discs as having, "extreme rates of climb, maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend[ing] belief to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either manually, automatically or remotely."
Allowing a small glimpse into the reality of such radical technology, Twining concluded, "It is possible within the present U.S. knowledge - provided extensive detailed development is undertaken - to construct a piloted aircraft which has the general description of the object [described above] which would be capable of an approximate range of 7,000 miles at subsonic speeds."
If technical knowledge in the 1940s was advanced enough to construct a workable flying saucer, the public was never to hear about it. Beginning in the late 1940s, a national security "lid" was placed on the subject.
But it is fascinating to recall that one of the first and best documented cases of mysterious abductions took place in September 1961, when Betty and Barney Hill under hypnosis recalled being taken aboard a circular craft manned by men in black uniforms.
Barney Hill described the leader as a "German Nazi" wearing a shiny black jacket, scarf, and cap.
Before anyone rushes out to proclaim that all UFOs are really secret Nazi technology, serious attention should be given to the wealth of public literature that clearly indicates that while some saucers, especially in the years following World War II, may indeed have been Nazi test vehicles, any objective review of the material suggests the presence of some unconventional source as well.
Another amazing - and chilling - aspect of Nazi technology involved their development of nuclear weapons. Researcher and author Farrell concluded from new material released from the former East Germany that the Nazis were much closer to developing an atomic bomb than previously accepted by postwar writers.
He characterized the idea that the Germans had neither the talent nor the capability to construct an operational atomic bomb - recall the well-known story of the destruction of the heavy-water plant in Norway by commandos - an "Allied Legend" designed to distract the public from a horrible reality.
"[A]ll the evidence points to the conclusion that there was a large, very well-funded, and very secret German isotope- enrichment program during the war, a program successfully disguised during the war by the Nazis and covered up after the war by the Allied Legend," wrote Farrell, after concluding that the conventional story that "the German failure to obtain the atom bomb because they never had a functioning reactor is simply utter scientific nonsense because a reactor is needed only if one wants to produce plutonium. It is an unneeded, and expensive, development, if one only wants to make a uranium A-bomb."
Plus, there is the cryptic remark made by Kurt Diebner, a physicist involved with the Nazi atomic bomb project.
Surreptitiously recorded by British intelligence during postwar internment at Farm Hall, England, Diebner mentioned a "photochemical process" to enrich uranium bypassing the need for a centrifuge. Since no modern researcher understands what process was referred to by Diebner, this may mean that the Nazis discovered a method of isotope separation and uranium enrichment that even now remains classified.
Adding to the idea that the Nazis already had perfected a method of enriching uranium are the words of nuclear scientist Karl Wirtz, who was also secretly taped at Farm Hall.
Upon learning of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Otto Hahn, who discovered atomic fission, commented, "They can only have done that if they have uranium isotope separation."
To which Wirtz agreed by responding, "They have it too," a clear indication that he knew of a German separation process.
Farrell noted, "Thus, there is sufficient reason, due to the science of bomb-making and the political and military realities of the war after America’s entry, that the Germans took the decision to develop only a uranium bomb, since that afforded the best, most direct, and technologically least complicated route to acquisition of a bomb."
Based on his research, Farrell wrote, "American progress in the plutonium bomb, from the moment [physicist Enrico] Fermi successfully completed and tested a functioning reactor in the squash court at the University of Chicago, appeared to be running fairly smoothly, until fairly late in the war, when it was discovered that in order to make a bomb from plutonium, the critical mass would have to be assembled much faster than any existing Allied fuse technologies could accomplish.
"Moreover, there was so little margin of error, since the fuses in an implosion device would have to fire as close to simultaneously as possible, that Allied engineers began to despair of making a plutonium bomb work.... I believe a strong prima facie case has been outlined that Nazi Germany developed and successfully tested, and perhaps used, a uranium atom bomb before the end of World War II,” Farrell concluded.
Farrell was not alone in this assessment. In 2005, Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch, in a book titled "Hitlers Bombe", claimed that the Nazis indeed tested nuclear weapons on Rügen Island near Ohrdruf, Thuringia, site of a subsidiary concentration camp to the infamous Buchenwald. Reportedly, many prisoners were killed during these tests, which were conducted under the supervision of the SS. He produced Kremlin archives to prove that Soviet intelligence reported the Ohrdruf tests to Stalin. Karlsh also produced the account of then still living witness Claere Werner custodian in 1945 of Wachtel Castle near Arnstadt.
Hitler 'created' an Atom Bomb that could be carried on a Flying Saucer
Hitler was believed to be close to creating an atom bomb which would have changed the outcome of WW2
A German TV documentary revealed the Nazis were incredibly close to developing the weapon of mass destruction.
According to the documentary, called 'The Search for Hitler’s Atom Bomb’, the research was so advanced that Russian prisoners of war were sacrificed to test the bomb's efficiency.
The documentary, which aired on the ZDF channel, quotes sealed records from Russia and the US which suggest that frenzied research brought the Third Reich within inches of producing the bomb.
It quotes Nazi scientists' interrogation reports, eyewitness accounts and records left behind by researchers.
Historian Matthia Uhl claims the race to create the A-bomb intensified in the last year of the war - with Germany being defeated on every front.
S.S. Gneral Hans Kammler who was in charge of the race for nuclear fission, who was one of a handful of Nazi officials who answered only to Hitler, was handed 175,000 concentration camp inmates for slave labour in the V-weapons factories, tank production lines and for building secret Bunkers.
One of Kammler's main projects was the Jonas Valley in Thuringia, east Germany, the alleged site of the Nazi's nuclear and space programmes.
One test was reportedly conducted at the beginning of March 1945.
The US has placed a 100-year secrecy order on the files concerning the valley and what went on in the secret tunnels the Nazis carved into it.
Conspiracy theorists believe the Americans found two things in the tunnels - a primitive nuclear bomb and a flying saucer designed to deliver it.
In the later stages of the war there were apparent sightings of flying saucers - dubbed "foo fighters".
ZDF quoted Soviet documents from Russian military intelligence agents who spoke of two nuclear tests in Thuringia.
They said: “The Germans are in the throes of making and testing a new secret weapon, which has a large destructive force.
“The available bomb has a diameter of 1.5 meters. It consists of interlocking hollow balls.”
Another Russian report said: “Communicated by our reliable source from Germany: the Germans have conducted two explosions in Thuringia with great force.”
One report added: “[Russian prisoners of war] in the centre of the explosion were killed and often no trace remained of them. Also a strong radioactive effect has been observed".
However the documentary was unable to find where the uranium the scientists would have needed came from - admitting many pieces of the story are still a mystery.
Karlsch’s primary evidence consists of "vouchers" for "tests" and a patent for a plutonium weapon dated 1941. He also claimed to have found traces of radioactivity in soil from the site.
A 1943 OSS report found in the Woods Memorandum to US secretary of State Cordell Hull also refers to a series of nuclear tests in the Schwabian Alps near Bisingen in July 1943. These tests are corroborated by seismic records.
Although Nazi armaments minister Speer was questioned about a mysterious blast at Ohrdruf during the Nuremberg war crimes trials, no significant information on a nuclear test was found, either because it never happened or because a postwar cover-up was quite successful.
Mainstream historians, at the mercy of carefully concocted cover stories in both Germany and the USA, have remained skeptical that Nazi scientists could have advanced their nuclear knowledge to the point of actual testing.
However, evidence that the Nazis were planning a nuclear strike near the end of the war came from varied sources, including a news article in the "Washington Post" dated 29 June 1945, which reported on an amazing find by Allied troops in Norway: "R.A.F. [Royal Air Force] officers said today that the Germans had nearly completed preparations for bombing New York from a 'colossal air field' near Oslo when the war ended.
"Forty giant bombers with a 7,000-mile range were found on this base - 'the largest Luftwaffe field I have ever seen,' one officer said.
"They were a new type bomber developed by Heinkel. They now are being dismantled for study. German ground crews said the planes were held in readiness for a mission to New York."
It should also be noted that the Nazis had two Junkers-390, a massive six-engine modification of the Junkers-290, known to have made flights to Japanese bases in Manchuria.
In late 1944, one JU-390 was flown from a base in Bordeaux, France, to within twelve miles of New York City, snapped photographs of the skyline, and returned - a nonstop flight of thirty-two hours.
What weapon was to be transported by these massive bombers? After the war, authorities discovered a feasibility study by the German Luftwaffe detailing the blast effects of an atomic bomb over New York’s Manhattan Island. The Nazi study was based on an atomic bomb in the fifteen-to seventeen-kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
If Nazi Germany had a nuclear weapon, they surely must have tested it, and a collection of disparate sources seems to indicate this was accomplished.
Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in a “Political Testament” written shortly before his death at the hands of partisans in April 1945, stated, "The wonder weapons are the hope. It is laughable and senseless for us to threaten at this moment, without a basis in reality for these threats. The well-known mass destruction bombs are nearly ready. In only a few days, with the utmost meticulous intelligence, Hitler will probably execute this fearful blow, because he will have full confidence.... It appears there are three bombs - and each has an astonishing operation. The construction of each is fearfully complex and of a lengthy time of completion."
Mussolini’s mention of three bombs is intriguing because of a statement of a former Russian military translator who served on the staff of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, the officer who took Japan’s surrender to the Soviet Union in 1945.
As reported by the German magazine "Der Spiegel" in 1992, Piotr Titarenko had written a letter to the Communist Party Central Committee, in which he stated that three atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. One of these, dropped on Nagasaki prior to the blast of 9 August 1945, failed to detonate and subsequently was given to the Soviet Union by Japanese officials.
If Titarenko’s account is accurate, this would mean that America had three atomic bombs on hand in the summer of 1945. Yet, a report to Manhattan Project leader Robert Oppenheimer just days after President Roosevelt died on 12 April 1945, stated that not enough enriched uranium existed to create a viable critical mass for even one atomic bomb.
News stories in Britain point to a possible Nazi atomic bomb test in 1944.
An 11 August 1945, article in London’s "Daily Telegraph" reported, "Britain prepared for the possibility of an atomic bomb attack on this country by Germany in August 1944. It can now be disclosed that details of the expected effect of such a bomb were revealed in a highly secret memorandum which was sent that summer to the chiefs of Scotland Yard, chief constables of provincial forces and senior officials of the defense services."
Another odd story also was published in England’s "Daily Mail" on 14 October 1944, under the headline "Berlin Is ‘Silent’ 60 Hours, Still No Phones."
The story, filed by a correspondent from Stockholm, stated that all telephone service in Berlin had been interrupted for three days with "no explanation for the hold-up, which has lasted longer than on any previous occasion.
The story ended by saying, "It is pointed out, moreover, in responsible quarters that if the stoppage were purely the technical result of bomb damage, as the Germans claimed, it should have been repaired by now."
A modern readership would know that such disruption can be caused by the electromagnetic pulse associated with a nuclear detonation.
Other intriguing hints of a German atomic test came in the form of three separate intelligence reports. A once-classified U.S. military intelligence report dated 19 August 1945, and titled “Investigations, Research, Developments and Practical Use of the German Atomic Bomb” details the experience of a German pilot named Hans Zinsser, a Flak rocket expert, while piloting a Heinkel bomber over northern Germany. Note that his experience coincides with the dates of the Berlin telephone blackout.
Zinsser reported: "At the beginning of October 1944, I flew from Ludwigslust (south of Lübeck) about 12 to 15 km from an atomic bomb test station, when I noticed a strong, bright illumination of the whole atmosphere, lasting about 2 seconds.
"The clearly visible pressure wave escaped the approaching and following cloud formed by the explosion. This wave had a diameter of about 1 km when it became visible and the color of the cloud changed frequently.... Personal observations of the colors of the explosion cloud found an almost blue-violet shade.
"During this manifestation reddish-colored rims were to be seen, changing to a dirty-like shade in very rapid succession. The combustion was lightly felt from my observation plane in the form of pulling and pushing.... About an hour later... I passed through the almost complete overcast (between 3,000 and 4,000 meter altitude). A cloud shaped like a mushroom with turbulent billowing sections (at about 7,000 meter altitude) stood, without any seeming connections, over the spot where the explosion took place.
"Strong electrical disturbances and the impossibility to continue radio communications turned up. Because of the P-38s operating in the area Wittenberg-Mersburg I had to turn to the north but observed a better visibility at the bottom of the cloud where the explosion occured [sic]."
It does not seem very clear why these experiments took place in such crowded areas.
Then there was the report of an Italian officer, Luigi Romersa, who claimed to have been present at the testing of a "disintegration bomb" on the night of 11/12 October 1944. Romersa was granted a special pass from Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or German High Command, to visit the test site on the island of Rügen.
Romersa was a special envoy from Mussolini, who had wanted more information since Hitler had mentioned to him, "a bomb with a force which will surprise the whole world."
According to Romersa, he and others were told the "disintegration bomb" was 'the most powerful explosive that has yet been developed" and that "nothing can withstand it."
They were sent to a Bunker about a mile from the actual test site.
He also was warned against radioactivity.
"Around 4 P.M., in the twilight, shadows appeared, running toward our bunker," recalled Romersa.
"They were soldiers and they had on a strange type of ‘diving suit.’ They entered and quickly shut the door. ‘Everything is kaput,’ one of them said as he removed his protective clothing. We also eventually had to put on white, coarse, fibrous cloaks. I cannot say what the material was made of, but I had the impression that it could have been asbestos. The headgear has a piece of Glimmerglas [mica glass?] in front of the eyes."
After making their way to the test site proper, Romersa stated, "The houses that I had seen only an hour earlier had disappeared, broken into little pebbles of debris. As we drew nearer [to the point of explosion], the more fearsome was the devastation. The grass had the same color as leather. The few trees that still stood upright had no more leaves."
Romersa’s credibility is supported by the fact that he eventually came to the United States, where he was granted a high-security clearance.
A third report dated 14 December 1944, but only declassified by the National Security Agency in 1978, is titled "Reports on the Atom-splitting Bomb."
-- Japanese Diplomatic signal intercept 12 December 1944 (Magic decrypt) Trans 14 Dec 44 (3020-B Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 December 1944 (War Department), National Archives, RG 457, SRA 14628-32, declassified 1 October 1978 (SRA = Japanese Attache)
It reads: "This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom- splitting bomb. It is a fact that in June of 1943, the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk.
"Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs (each round up to 5 kilograms) sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.
"The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant Colonel... Kenji, adviser to the attaché in Hungary and formerly... in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place: 'All the men and the horses [within radius of] the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated. Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia, too, would use poison gas....Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attack by German atom- splitting bombs. The American authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb..."
The Japanese report then goes into a remarkably accurate description of the splitting of the atom, ending with the statement, "[T]he German atom-splitting device is the Neuman disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates an atomic pressure of several tens of thousands of tons per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy.... That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy."
Some elements of the Japanese report were obviously in error, such as the confusion over descriptions of a fission versus a fusion bomb and the date of the Kursk offensive, which did not begin until July 5, 1943. Mistakes notwithstanding, it is clear that Japanese intelligence was firmly convinced that the Germans had used a revolutionary type of weapon on the Eastern Front.
But if the Nazis had deployed a tactical nuke or other exotic weapon on the Eastern Front, why would the Soviets have kept such an attack secret? Farrell pointed out that had Nazi Germany used such a weapon, it would most likely have been against the Russians, whom the Nazis considered “subhuman,” in Nazi ideology.
Fully one-half of the 50 million casualties of the war occurred in Russia, and several massive explosions, such as the one that destroyed a section of Sevastopol, have never been fully explained. It was announced that a hundred-foot below-ground ammunition Bunker was destroyed after being struck by a lucky shot from Dora, a 31 1/2- inch German railway gun considered the largest in the world.
Although not the largest calibre gun ever made, or the longest ranged, the 80cm railway gun 'Dora' was the biggest. As far as is known it was used only sparingly, to shell Sevastopol in the Crimea, and later Warsaw. Too large to be transported whole, Dora required several trains to transport it.
Such attacks were never reported by Soviet leader Josef Stalin, due to the fear of losing control over a panicked and war-weary Russian population. The use of a super-weapon on the Eastern Front also might explain why more is not known about this issue. Accurate war news from Russia was extremely hard to come by during the war and grew more so during the Cold War.
To make public the use of a nuclear or unconventional weapon "would have been a propaganda disaster for Stalin’s government," noted Farrell.
"Faced with an enemy of superior tactical and operational competence in conventional arms, the Red Army often had to resort to threats of execution against its own soldiers just to maintain order and discipline in its ranks and prevent mass desertion. Acknowledgment of the existence and use of such weapons by the mortal enemy of Communist Russia could conceivably have ruined Russian morale and cost Stalin the war, and perhaps even toppled his government."
If the Nazis had operational atomic weapons, is it possible they were transferred to the United States?
Documents exist showing that America’s secret development of the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project, could not have produced enough enriched uranium to make a bomb by mid-1945. Since only a plutonium bomb was tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, researchers have wondered where America acquired the uranium bombs dropped on Japan less than a month later.
Some have speculated that the United States used a Nazi bomb or used Nazi enriched uranium to manufacture its bombs.
The Trinity bomb exploded near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, was a plutonium bomb. Why then would the United States first drop the Little Boy, an untested uranium bomb, on Japan on 6 August 1945?
"A rational explanation is [that] ‘Little Boy’ was not tested by the Americans because... [t]he Americans did not need to test it, because its German designers already had," surmised Farrell. This idea is supported by the statement of German authors Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner that J. Robert Oppenheimer, the "father of the atomic bomb," maintained that the bomb dropped on Japan was of “German provenance."
Of course, this idea would fly in the face of the long- accepted Allied Legend that Germany simply couldn’t manufacture an atomic bomb by the war’s end.
Where could the Nazis have obtained enriched uranium for such a bomb?
One potential source was the secure underground laboratory of Baron Manfred von Ardenne, built in Lichterfelde outside Berlin, which contained a 2-million-volt electrostatic generator and a cyclotron. In 1941, von Ardenne, along with Fritz Houtermans, had calculated the critical mass needed to create U-235. It should be noted that Hitler visited the laboratory toward the end of the war, at a time when he spoke enthusiastically of a new wonder weapon that would turn the tide in Germany’s favor.
Some researchers contend that the Nazi development of a uranium bomb was kept secret because the work was not part of the German military-industrial system but hidden within the German Postal Service.
According to Carter Plymton Hydrick, author of a well-documented book "Critical Mass - How Nazi Germany Surrendered Enriched Uranium for the United States’ Atomic Bomb", "[A]ll of Ardenne’s facilities... were provided by and ongoing funding made available through, the patronage of one man, Reichminister of Post and a member of the Reich President’s Research Council on Nuclear Affairs, Wilhelm Ohnesorge."
Reportedly, Hitler once remarked that while his party and military leadership worried about how to win the war, it was his postal minister who brought him the solution.
Farrell explained that the Reichspost was, "awash with money, and could therefore have provided some of the massive funding necessary to the [uranium enrichment] project, a true 'black budget' operation in every sense."
Another source may have been a giant synthetic-rubber plant built by I.G. Farben next to Auschwitz, the notorious death camp. The site was chosen for its proximity to transportation hubs, both rail lines and rivers, as well as the nearby supply of slave labor found at the Auschwitz camp. This site probably was also selected with the idea that the Allies would not bomb a concentration camp, a supposition that proved correct.
Yet, despite the facts - established during the Nuremberg trials - that more than $2 billion in today’s dollars were spent; that 300,000 slave laborers had been used in both the construction and operation of this plant; and that it had consumed more electricity than Berlin, not one pound of Buna, or synthetic rubber, was ever produced.
So, what was produced?
"The facility has all of the characteristics of a uranium enrichment plant," noted Hydrick, adding, 'the various components of the German atomic bomb efforts could have been implemented with a high degree of secrecy, even from other high-level Nazis, given Bormann’s close-knit relationships with Ohnesorge; Schmitz, who was chief of I.G. Farben; [Rudolf] Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz; and Heinrich Müller, who, among his many other duties as head of the Gestapo, oversaw the supplying of forced laborers to Auschwitz."
A theory has been offered that, late in the war, certain Nazis arranged the transfer of enriched uranium to the United States in exchange for immunity from prosecution. At the heart of this transfer theory lies the saga of a Nazi submarine - the U-234.
Unterseeboot-234 was originally designed as a mine-layer but was converted to a cargo carrier prior to its only mission into enemy waters: the last German shipment to its ally, Japan. It sailed from Kiel in March 1945, with a most unusual cargo consisting of several high-level German officials, including Dr. Heinz Schlicke, the inventor of fuses for atomic bombs, and two Japanese officers - Air Force Colonel Genzo Shosi and Navy Captain Hideo Tomonaga.
Also listed on the boat’s manifest of 240 metric tons of cargo were two dismantled ME-262 jet fighters, ten gold-lined cylinders containing 560 kilograms of uranium oxide, wooden barrels of “water,” and infrared proximity fuses.
On 14 May 1945, six days after the German surrender, the U-234 was intercepted by the USS Sutton and taken into captivity. Oddly enough, the sub had been overflown several times by Allied aircraft but never fired upon. The circumstances implied a preplanned meeting and surrender. Here the mystery began. Who issued the orders for this enemy sub to surrender, and why to the Americans? Upon arrival at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, it appeared that some of the boat’s cargo was missing.
The two Japanese officers, after learning that the ship’s captain planned to surrender, had committed suicide and were buried at sea with full honors. But, suspiciously, the two ME-262s were missing, as well as the uranium oxide. In fact, when the U.S. Navy prepared its own manifest for the U-234, there was no accounting for seventy tons of cargo.
Dr. Velma Hunt, a Colorado environmental scientist, said she uncovered information that the U-boat made a secret stop at South Portland, Maine, sometime between May 14 and May 17, 1945, where the cargo in question could have been unloaded. There has been controversy as to whether this uranium had been enriched enough for use as a weapon.
Cook noted that the gold-lined cylinders indicated the uranium was emitting gamma radiation, which meant the normally harmless uranium oxide had been brought to enrichment through the use of a working nuclear reactor.
"And yet, officially, there had been no nuclear reactor in Germany capable of fulfilling this task," wrote Cook. "[At least] not in Speer’s orbit of operations."
Farrell further explains, "The use of gold-lined cylinders is explainable by the fact that uranium, a highly corrosive metal, is easily contaminated if it comes into contact with other unstable elements. Gold, whose radioactive shielding properties are as great as lead, is also, unlike lead, a highly pure and stable element, and is therefore the element of choice when storing or shipping highly enriched and pure uranium for long periods of time, such as a voyage.
"Thus, the uranium oxide on board the U-234 was highly enriched uranium, and most likely, highly enriched U-235, the last stage, perhaps, before being reduced to weapons grade or to metallization for a bomb (if it was already in weapons grade purity) [emphasis in the original]."
Adding weight to Farrell’s deduction is an anecdote regarding the German crew of the U-234. Some crew members were amused when they saw the Japanese officers bring on board cargo marked "U-235."
They apparently thought their Japanese guests couldn’t even get the number of the boat correct. Some now believe the labels indicated the presence of uranium 235, the only isotope found in nature that has the ability to cause an expanding fission chain reaction - in other words, the element needed for a uranium fission bomb. Uranium that has undergone an extraction process to boost its U-235 proportion is known as enriched uranium.
Wolfgang Hirschfeld, radioman on the U-234, stated the submarine’s orders were "only to sail on the orders of the highest level. Führer HQ." He also revealed after the war that crew members believed Japan had succeeded in testing an atomic weapon before their departure from Germany in March 1945. The U-234 met an inglorious end in November 1947, when it was used as a torpedo target and sunk off Cape Cod.
Hydrick published copies of documents from the National Archives to show a connection between the Manhattan Project and the U-234. One such document is a secret cable from the commander of naval operations directing that a three-man party take possession of the sub’s cargo. In addition to two naval officers was the name of Major John E. Vance with the Army Corps of Engineers, the department of the army under which the Manhattan Project operated.
A few days after the visit by Vance, a manifest of the cargo indicated the uranium was no longer in navy possession.
Furthermore, telephone transcripts between Manhattan intelligence officers about a week later stated a captured shipment of uranium powder was being tested by a person identified only as "Vance."
"That there could have been another 'Vance' who was working with uranium powder - especially 'captured' uranium powder - is improbable," noted Hydrick.
But author Henry Stevens found an even more disturbing cover-up. After receiving a statement from the National Archives denying that any canisters containing fissionable material was onboard the U-234, Stevens, recalling that the submarine had surrendered to the USS Sutton, wrote to the Naval Historical Center at the Washington Navy Yard requesting a cargo manifest from the U-234 in the files of the Sutton.
For a $5 microfiche charge, Stevens received the manifest that was identical to the one from the National Archives except that the uranium oxide canisters were listed. This discrepancy in the manifests can only be explained by someone altering the documents.
A plutonium bomb, such as the one Manhattan scientists were developing, required a critical mass to be achieved within 1/3000th of a second, a speed far exceeding the capabilities of fuses available at that time. According to Farrell, there is evidence to support the idea that the necessary fuses were obtained from U-234 passenger Dr. Schlicke.
A message from the chief of Naval Operations to the authorities in Portsmouth, where the U-234 was taken after its surrender, indicated that Dr. Schlicke along with his fuses were to be taken to Washington accompanied by naval officers. Once there, the doctor was scheduled to present a lecture on his fuses in the presence of a "Mr. Alvarez," apparently meaning Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez, the man who is credited with producing fuses for the plutonium bomb.
Alvarez and his student Lawrence Johnson are credited with designing the exploding-bridgewire detonators for the spherical implosives used in the Trinity bomb test as well as the Nagasaki bomb.
On 3 March 1945, President Roosevelt received an ominous memo from Senator James F. Byrnes, a Democrat from South Carolina and a longtime confidant to the president.
This "Memorandum for the President" stated, "I understand that the expenditures for the Manhattan Project are approaching 2 billion dollars with no definite assurance yet of production.... Even eminent scientists may continue a project rather than concede its failure."
Byrnes, who went on to become a secretary of state and a Supreme Court justice, was voicing the concern of many that the atom bomb project was foundering and might even prove a failure. Byrnes may have been aware of a letter dated 28 December 1944, in which Eric Jette, chief metallurgist at Los Alamos, expressed reservations over the lack of sufficient amounts of uranium for the atomic bomb.
He wrote, "A study of the shipment of [weapons grade uranium] for the past three months shows the following... : At present rate we will have 10 kilos by February 7 and 15 kilos about May 1."
According to Hydrick, Edward Hammel, a metallurgist who worked at Los Alamos, where enriched uranium was made into material for the atomic bomb, reported that very little enriched uranium was received there until less than a month before the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.
Little Boy, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, carried 64.15 kilograms of enriched uranium, virtually the entire quantity that could have been produced since mid-1944 by the enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, even working around the clock. One explanation for the lack of enriched uranium was that some of this fissionable material had been used to produce plutonium in Enrico Fermi’s breeder reactors at Hanford, Washington.
The mounting pressure on Manhattan Project directors to produce a bomb before the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands must have been terrific. If the submarine’s cargo did indeed include U-235 and Dr. Schlicke’s fuses, its acquisition by the United States solved two pressing problems of the Manhattan atomic bomb project - a lack of sufficient amounts of uranium and adequate fuses.
The American bomb-makers may have been greatly relieved that the two major problems facing the Manhattan Project were solved with the surrender of the U-234.
"The fact that U-234 arrived on American soil carrying 560 kilograms of uranium that was enriched and went on to be used in the bombs that were dropped on Japan can scarcely be argued any longer except by those who refuse to consider the evidence," concluded Hydrick.
While it may remain a controversy whether the acquisition of the U-234 was a fortuitous capture or the planned transfer of technology from Germany to the United States, the evidence strongly indicates the latter.
If additional uranium was obtained from the U-234, this would have provided more than could ever have been produced by the Manhattan Project, and the equivalent of about eight Hiroshima bombs. It also means the German nuclear program was much further advanced than believed by conventional historians. In late July 1945, atomic bomb components - and perhaps additional German uranium bombs - were delivered to Tinian Island in the Pacific following a secret and rushed voyage from California by the USS Indianapolis.
After delivering its deadly cargo, this Portland-class heavy cruiser suffered the largest single at-sea loss of life in U.S. naval history and became the last American ship sunk in World War II after being torpedoed by a Japanese submarine in the Philippines.
Farrell voiced the suspicion that the Indianapolis may have delivered much more than America’s atomic bomb - it may have carried a German bomb in addition to its cargo of uranium and fuses.
He was supported by Stevens, who wrote that the, "unexploded German atomic bombs fell into the hands of the Americans at the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, two months before the 'first' explosion of an atomic weapon in the New Mexico desert. What a present for the Americans!
"All they did was to put new tail fins on the bombs, repaint them, and drop them on Japan. Naturally, the American scientists involved with the Manhattan Project were given credit."
But, if the Nazis had developed a working atomic bomb, why was it not used as Allied armies closed in on Germany? One answer seems to be that they did not have a reliable delivery system in place.
The Nazis’ V-3, a smooth-bore 150-mm gun dubbed the Centipede, designed to launch large-finned shells into London, along with its multistage A-10 rocket, was still undependable.
Witkowski voiced his suspicions that the fatal flight of Lieutenant Joseph Kennedy, older brother to the future president, might have been an ill-fated attempt to destroy the V-3 complex at Mimoyecques, France. The giant airfield in Norway, home to the massive six-engine bombers, had not yet been completed.
This idea was echoed by Stevens, who became convinced that the Third Reich produced an atomic bomb.
"The Germans did make atomic bombs," he stated emphatically. "Not only did they make atomic bombs, they made uranium as well as plutonium bombs and other atomic weapons which remain somewhat of a mystery. What the Germans could not do, in these dying days of the Third Reich, was to match up one of these nuclear weapons with an effective delivery system. The reasons for this differ with each weapon, individually, and run the [gamut] from mistake to treachery to incompetence."
One thought that must have crossed the minds of Nazi leaders was the total destruction of Germany that would have resulted from the use of a nuclear weapon.
Hitler and the Atom Bomb
An incurable lung disease brought Otto Skorzeny to Heidelberg in 1975 for medical treatment. There, Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Waldemar Schütz were his last comrades, visiting him before his return to Spain eight days before his death. He told them on this occasion about his visit in the Führerhauptquartier in the autumn of 1944, when the Führer was ill and received him at his bed. The Führer told him that day that Germany had not built the atom bomb, because he did not want to take the responsibility for mankind being destroyed by such a "Teufelswerk":
"Do you know Mr Skorzeny, that the energy which will be freed through the splitting of the atom's nucleus and the additional radioactivity from such a bomb might destroy our planet? .... The effects would be dreadful. Even if one could control the radioactivity and could use atom splitting as a weapon the results would be dreadful. When Dr. Todt visited me I read that the energy set free by such a bomb could destroy the whole of Arizona or make as big a crater as the meteor had caused in Siberia. That means that all life within such an area would be destroyed, not only humans but all life. Animals and plants would not be able to live within a radius of 40 km for hundreds of years due to radiation. That would mean an Apocalypse. No land, no group of civilized people could bear the responsibility for such a slaughter. In battle after battle human beings would destroy themselves if such a bomb were used. Only in remote places like Amazonia and the jungles of Sumatra would people have a chance of surviving such a bomb."
The devastation of London or New York would not have materially altered the course of the war in the spring of 1945. And the retaliation of the Allies would have been unimaginable. Further, high-ranking Nazis, such as Hitler’s secretary Martin Bormann, who by war’s end had become the second most powerful man in Nazi Germany, realized the war was lost, and used advanced technology as a bargaining chip with the Western allies.
Hydrick proposed just that intriguing possibility: that the U-234 was purposely handed over to U.S. authorities on the order of Bormann in exchange for immunity as part of a covert plan for the continuation of Nazi research.
Although there was criticism over Hydrick’s technical descriptions of both the atomic bomb and its detonators, his mass of documentation concerning the transfer of nuclear technology from Germany to America is compelling.
Hydrick’s claim is supported by Farrell, who wrote, "I have argued that most likely all of it [extra uranium and even atom bombs] came from Nazi Germany, courtesy of Nazi Party Reichsleiter Bormann and SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler."
But Farrell had an even more horrifying thought about why the Nazis did not drop an atomic bomb. Considering Nazi research into quantum physics and energy manipulation, Farrell speculated that their atomic bombs "were being developed as detonators for something far more destructive." Since only a few scattered plans to Nazi super-science were recovered after the war, the question arises, "What became of their advanced technology?"
There has never been a public answer.
However, the answer to this question may be found by studying the man in charge of Germany’s high-tech weapons programs, Dr. Engineer Hans Kammler.
Until recently, finding reliable information about Kammler and his work has been very difficult, and most biographies and stories are a mix of speculation, meta-fiction and/or conspiracy theory. In 2000, however, a number of documents relating to the last days of World War II in Germany were declassified and authors such as Nick Cook–editor for "Jane’s Defense Weekly" (the world’s leading military affairs journal) and author of "The Hunt for Zero Point" (2002)—have begun to piece together information about Kammler’s life and work in the last days of World War II. Moreover, they have traced the migration and activities of members of the Kammlerstab (Kammler’s staff) after the war to places such as Lockheed/Martin, Bell Labs, General Dynamics, and Boeing. Thus, according to Cook, although Kammler himself disappeared without a trace on 18 April 1945, technical information about secret weapons projects that he had gathered and hidden during the last days of the war began to reappear at various defense contracting companies in the United States in the 1950’s.
Kammler, whose name has been largely lost to history, may have played a large role in developing and hiding away the technology secrets of Hitler’s Third Reich. Kammler did not have higher purposes in mind when he set out to develop rockets and energy manipulation. He was searching for new weapons.
Born in 1901, Kammler completed engineering studies at a technical university and began working for the German Air Ministry. Aft er joining the Nazi SS, he managed finances and construction for the SS until 1942, when he became chief of Group C under the Wirtschafts und Verwaltungshauptamt, or the Economic and Administrative Central Offi ce (WVHA) of the SS, one of five key branches of the Black Shirts.
This branch controlled all economic enterprises as well as all concentration and extermination camps. Beginning in 1943, Kammler took control of all “special tasks,” which included “Kammler special construction” - the creation of secret underground facilities as well as exotic weapons programs. His official title was SS Obergruppenführer, or lieutenant general, and he had worked his way up to command the Third Reich’s most precious war time secrets.
In mid-1943, SS chief Heinrich Himmler sent a letter to armaments minister Speer. "With this letter, I inform you that I, as SS Reichsführer... do hereby take charge of the manufacture of the A-4 instrument," it read. The A-4 rocket was later designated by Hitler as the V-2. Himmler then placed Kammler in charge of the project, one of Germany’s most secret high-tech weapons systems.
Due to the devastation brought on by incessant Allied air raids, by the end of 1944, Kammler had taken control of weapons research as well as the construction of underground factories and concentration camps.
"Thus - just a few weeks before the end of the war - he had become commissioner general for all important weapons," wrote Speer, who later bemoaned the fact that Himmler’s SS gradually assumed total control over Germany’s weaponry, production, and research.
In connection with his new responsibilities, Kammler created an SS Sonderkommando, or special command, independent from the normal German military and bureaucracy.
"What Kammler had established was a 'special projects office,' a forerunner of the entity that had been run by the bright young colonels of the USAF’s stealth program in the 1970s and 1980s," noted Cook. It was "a place of vision, where imagination could run free, unfettered by the restraints of accountability. Exactly the kind of place, in fact, you’d expect to find anti-gravity technology, if such an impossible thing existed."
Kammler also had use of computer technology that was only dreamed of in American science fiction stories.
"Dr. Kammler had the benefit of knowledge, hardware and software that was developed by the computing pioneer, Dr. Konrad Zuse," wrote Stevens.
"In spite of everything churned out by the computer industry and 'history' as we know it, Dr. Zuse built the first digital computer in 1938 and the first programmable software language, Plankaikül. He also was instrumental in developing magnetic tape as a computer storage medium. By 1944 the Germans were using computers, the Zuse-built Z-3, to plot the course of ballistic attack by the V-2 at Peenemünde and Nordhausen."
Stevens, who spent more than fifteen years researching the Reich’s most secret technology, including flying saucers, wrote, "By the end of the war a whole new research and production command and control structure had been set up which reduced or replaced the figures we normally think of as running the Third Reich, such as, for instance, Hermann Göring and Albert Speer."
It was Kammler and his Sonderkommando that became the repository for the Reich’s most advanced technology, going far beyond the rockets and flying discs.
But Kammler’s immediate concern was the V-2 rocket program. Kammler worked closely with Wernher von Braun and his superior, Luftwaffe Major General Walter Dornberger.
Von Braun, who had been a member of the SS since 1940, carried the rank of SS Sturmbannführer, or Major.
Alarmed by progress on the V-2 rockets, Britain’s Bomber Command sent 597 bombers on the night of August 16–17, 1943, to raid Peenemünde - Germany’s top-secret rocket facility built on an island at the mouth of the Oder River near the border of Germany and Poland. Because of a navigation “blunder,” much of the underground and well-camouflaged Peenemünde site was left undamaged.
Brian Ford described the results: "Even so, over 800 of the people on the island were killed.... After this, it was realized that some of the facility had better be dispersed throughout Germany; thus the theoretical development facility was moved to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, development went to Nordhausen and Bleicherode, and the main wind-tunnel and ancillary equipment went down to Kochel, some 24 miles south of Munich.
"This was christened Wasserbau Versuchsanstalt Kochelsee - experimental waterworks project - and gave rise to the most thorough research center for long-range rocket development that, at the time, could have been envisioned."
Mary Bennett and David S. Percy, authors of "Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistleblowers", speculated that the British air raid on Peenemünde was designed not to knock out the V-rocket site but to force it to move to safer environs, to ensure the safety of the rocket program.
They showed how the raid bombed the site’s northern peninsula rather than the main facility, due to misplaced target indicators. These authors noted that of the eight hundred personnel who died in the air raid, about half were mostly Russians from the prisoner labor force and the other half were technicians and their families.
After this raid, the irreplaceable Hermann Oberth was transferred to the safety of the Reinsdorf works near Wittenberg, to continue his work.
"Instructions from the highest level, it seems, had been to target personnel and certainly not the V-2 rocket production facilities. It was clearly CRUCIAL that these rockets, plans and parts were spared," they stated.
Someone with high authority wanted this Nazi technology available to them after the war.
Nick Cook also saw the connection between such exotic technology and the mysterious Hans Kammler.
"There was, via the Kammler trail, a mounting body of evidence that the Nazis, in their desperation to win the war, had been experimenting with a form of science the rest of the world have never remotely considered," he wrote.
"And that somewhere in this cauldron of ideas, a new technology had been born; one that was so far ahead of its time it had been suppressed for more than half a century."
One clue to what this revolutionary technology might involve was found in the capture of physicist Walter Gerlach, one of the Nazi scientists brought to the United States after the war. Gerlach has been connected with the German attempts to build an atomic bomb, yet his background indicated even more esoteric knowledge.
In 1921, Gerlach received a Nobel Prize, not for nuclear research but for magnetic spin polarization, dealing with the momentum of electrons of atoms situated in a magnetic field. Such work had little to do with the atomic bomb but much to do with energy manipulation to include antigravity.
In 1931, a paper titled "About Gravitation, Vortices and Waves in Rotating Media" was published by O.C. Hilgenberg, a student of Gerlach, which indicated the focus of Gerlach’s work.
"And yet, after the war, Gerlach, who died in 1979, apparently never returned to these subject matters, nor did he make any references to them; almost as if he had been forbidden to do so," noted Cook.
Interestingly, Gerlach’s wartime work diaries were confiscated by U.S. authorities and remain classified today.
Nazi advanced Research and Development was under the direction of an engineer, Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler who reported to Himmler, making him one level away from the top.
The breadth of technology projects under Kammler was immense; they included not only von Braun’s rocket works at Peenemünde but also secret physics experimentation in Thuringia, in large underground facilities. Near the end of the war, General Patton’s tanks did not head for Berlin but for Ohrdruf in Thuringia, where Auschwitz provided a pool of forced labor for the underground facilities.
As Joseph P. Farrell recounts in his book, "The Reich of the Black Sun", the "spin" in the article about the bomb being a recent Nazi development is not unexpected, but the extent of damage, some 12 miles in diameter, is beyond the blast damage of a large atomic bomb or a comparable fuel-air bomb which the Nazis also had developed. This is the blast diameter of a hydrogen bomb [It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944].
"The idea of a "Superbomb" was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943. [German patent 905.847, March 16, 1943, cited in Mayer and Mehner, "Hitler und die Bombe"] Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions! In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic "punch" but without the side effects!
"In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast. Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm's 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization."
"At the "small end" of the "bombs of mass destruction scale," however, there are equally baffling, and problematical, assertions regarding Nazi research into the fuel-air bomb, the only known conventional explosive device with enough power to produce the blast and heat effects of a small "tactical" nuclear weapon. It goes without saying that today's "tactical nuke" would have been World War Two's strategic weapon. The first allegations of this type of bomb did not come with Gulf War One in the early 1990s, but with Renato Vesco. And his claims there, as elsewhere, were quietly ignored. But once again, declassification has verified his assertions, and to an extraordinary degree.
Liquid Air bomb
"As the research on the atomic bomb under Graf von Ardenne and others was not proceeding as rapidly as had been hoped in 1944, it was decided to proceed with the development of a liquid air bomb. Experiments using ordinary powdered coal were not at all successful, but extremely good results were obtained from a mixture consisting of 60% finely powdered dry brown coal and 40% liquid air. The technical man responsible for this work was Dr. Mario Zippermayr. The first trial was made on the Doberitz grounds near Berlin using a charge of about 8 kg of powder in a thin tin plate container. The liquid air was poured on to the powder, and the two were mixed together with a long wooden stirrer.
"Bombs with charges of 25 and 50 kg. of powder were dropped on the Starbergersee, and photographs of the explosion were taken. Standartenführer Klumm kept a photograph of the result and showed it to Brandt (Himmler's personal adviser). The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to 4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed.
"Several important considerations are worth mentioning here. First, note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers' radius. Second, note that Zippermayr has had a similar insight to Dr. Nowak's "molecular bomb": compression of material and then rapid dispersion over an area prior to detonation. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation.
"So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler's representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler's "think tank." But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics."
The Historical Problematic
"German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.
"First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary "public" history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.
"Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of wreaking strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.
"Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by Austria (prior to its annexation by Germany), and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given the allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippermayr test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results, as have been seen, were probably beyond even the Nazis' wildest destructive dreams.
"But what do all these fantastic projects indicate about the nature of German secret weapons research? We may draw a number of conclusions from the evidence presented thus far, and in so doing, speculatively reconstruct the "mission briefing" of the secret weapons think tank being run by Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:
(1) Overlapping technologies were to be developed that could be employed in across a wide variety of various weapons systems (Stealth and RAM technology, etc);
"In other words, the Kammlerstab's mission brief was to think "outside the box" entirely, even if that meant outside the box of Nazi party ideology, or, when it suited it, inside it. The basis was the will to power, by whatever means possible."
The example of engineer Ott Hilgenberg demonstrates this:
"In 1931 Hilgenberg published what may best be called an arcane paper entitled "Gravitation, Tromben, und Wellen in bewegten Medien," or "Gravitation, Beats, and Waves in Moving Media." The title itself is quite suggestive, for it is the first indication that, even before the Nazis, and after relativity, at least one serious and respected German physicist is still thinking of the old idea of an aether, but thinking about it in a way quite different from the static aether concepts of the 19th century that led to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, and Sagnac's rotational version of it.
"The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter. Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks.
"So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed. Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housing below ground in a room bricked and tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine.
"More recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study the resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields. These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time.
Farrell also includes in his book the "Nazi Antarctic Fortress of Solitude":
And what does Farrell think happened to Kammler and his work?
"...the secret weapons think tank, the Kammlerstab, survived the war more or less intact, and continued its work in a variety of host countries, most particularly in the United Kingdom and even more so in the United States, either in concert with them, and sometimes independently of them."
The technology of large underground working spaces was first pioneered in modern times by the Nazis and has been vastly expanded by the USG, though almost all of it is unknown to the public. Dr. Richard Sauder has made it his quest to explore this undisclosed topic. The Nazis would have had the tunneling technology required to go underground (or under ice) in Antarctica, though this intriguing aspect of post-WW II Nazis in Antarctica, Argentina and Chile is a topic for future coverage.
The second undisclosed area - the biggest secret within the USG - is further outside the box than what actually happened at the end of WW II and requires some mental preparation to consider seriously. It relates to what Farrell and some others think was an incident involving secret post-WW II Nazi technology: the Roswell incident in New Mexico. Others think it was an event involving extraterrestrials.
One of the best documentary pieces of evidence regarding UFOs is the "Twining memo”"of U.S. General Nathan Twining, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1955-58. In it (September 23, 1947, AF200-20) he wrote concerning UFOs: “The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious.” Even General Douglas MacArthur said (NYT, 8OCT55): “Because of the developments of science, all countries on earth will have to unite to survive and to make a common front against attack by people of other planets. The politics of the future will be cosmic, or interplanetary.” Such political subject-matter is now called exopolitics.
In Britain, Commander in Chief of the Royal Air Force, Marshall Lord Dowding, ("London Sunday Dispatch", 11 July 1954) said: “More than 10,000 sightings have been reported, the majority of which cannot be accounted for by any ‘scientific’ explanation... I am convinced that these objects do exist and that they are not manufactured by any nation on earth.” In Canada, in a top-secret government memorandum of 21 November 1950, Wilbert Smith wrote: “The matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States government, rating higher even than the H-bomb. Flying saucers exist. Their modus operandi is unknown but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Doctor Vannevar Bush.”
Exopolitics might be the most closely guarded secret, though other countries are more open about it. These topics take engineers a long way from transistor circuit modeling, yet there is sufficient evidence to consider the matter seriously from a technical standpoint. Some of the best investigators involved are engineers, such as Stanton Friedman and Robert Wood. The consequences for disclosure are enormous and some people are making the case that highly-advanced covert technology should be made public for the benefit of the world.
-- with material by Dennis Feucht
February 20, 2014
At the turn of the current century, both Cook and the Polish military journalist Witkowski tracked Kammler and his top-secret Nazi energy work to the Wenzeslaus Mine, located about 215 miles west of Warsaw in Lower Silesia, near the border with Czechoslovakia. This mine is in Ludwikowice Klodzkie, formerly Ludwigsdorf. The location was perfect for security purposes as it was outside Germany yet within the Greater Third Reich. Additionally, Kammler spoke fluent Czech.
During their journey, Witkowski revealed his access to a formerly classified Soviet document detailing the interrogation at the end of the war of a Rudolf Schuster, who had been a member of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, or Reich Central Security Office, Nazi Germany’s version of the Department of Homeland Security.
Schuster revealed that in June of 1944, he was transferred to a special evacuation Kommando called General Plan 1945, formed by Martin Bormann to evacuate valuable science and technology from the Reich. Schuster, who was not privy to the plan’s overall agenda, nevertheless located much of these evacuation activities in the area of the Wenzeslaus Mine.
Schuster’s testimony, coupled with other information, convinced Cook that the Bormann evacuation plan had been one of the Nazis’ greatest secrets.
"There has never been any official acknowledgment of the existence of the special evacuation Kommando," he wrote.
It was this unacknowledged evacuation operation that saved the Reich’s most precious technology. Once at the mine site, Cook and Witkowski found remnants of what once had been a secret SS testing and production facility that may have even included a giant early superconductor.
In 1931, the Wenzeslaus Mine suffered an accident that caused bankruptcy and a takeover by the Polish government.
With the occupation of Poland, the mine was reconditioned by the Nazis as a gigantic science center.
"The whole area, in the center of which was located the main left shaft, proved to be the interior of a deep valley, which was accessible only through two 'mountain passes," noted Witkowski.
"Since the remnants of watchtowers could be seen in them, it was obvious that the whole area had been closely guarded, and its configuration caused that in this way the whole valley was physically cut off [from] the outside world."
This valley, about three hundred yards across, was bisected by rail lines, and lined with a variety of structures, concrete bunkers, and guard stations, many covered with dirt and trees to act as camouflage. Today the site is virtually ruins and overgrown with trees and vegetation.
Cook saw that, "the Germans had gone to a great deal of trouble to ensure that the place looked pretty much as it had always looked since mining operations began here at the turn of the last century, a clear indication that whatever had happened here during the war had been deeply secret...."
"Almost everything that was known about the Wenzeslaus Mine had been handed down from [SS General Jakob] Sporrenberg [the officer appointed to command the 'northern route' of General Plan 1945’s evacuation Kommando].
"It had been run by the SS, had employed slave-labor and had been sealed from the outside world by a triple ring of check points and heavily armed guards.”"
Sporrenberg’s testimony and affidavits, the only known description of the strange experiments at the mine, were given during a postwar trial in Poland. He was found guilty of war crimes and executed.
In the closing days of the war, most of the local population was evacuated westward. In fleeing the Russians, many of these refugees died during the fighting or froze in one of the coldest winters on record. Today, most of the local residents are newcomers with no recollection of what transpired at the mine during the war.
A central shaft led downward to the original mine as well as a labyrinth of additional underground facilities dug by Germans. But what most intrigued Cook and Witkowski was a huge circular concrete structure. Green camouflage paint was still visible on the edges. The circular structure was formed by twelve thick columns supporting a dodecagon-shaped reinforcing concrete ring about ninety feet in diameter.
Initially, Witkowski thought this might be the remains of a cooling tower. He abandoned this idea once he saw cooling towers at a different location on photographs of the area, taken in 1934. Next he thought of the structure as a “fly trap,” similar to those used to test helicopters and other hovering aircraft . Yet, this answer was not satisfactory either in that the researchers found a concrete duct containing thick electric cables leading to a power-generating station.
Learning that high-voltage current cannot be used in mines with the potential for flammable gas - such as the Wenzeslaus Mine - Cook and Witkowski determined that the structure had nothing to do with mining but was used in connection with the strange experiments described to his captors by the SS officer Sporrenberg.
These experiments centered around a bell-shaped object - appropriately enough codenamed Die Glocke, or the Bell - which was housed in a concrete chamber hundreds of feet underground. According to the research of Witkowski and Cook, the Bell was made from hard, heavy metal and cylindrical in shape with a semicircular cap and hook or clamping device on top.
Huge quantities of electricity were fed into it through thick cables dropping into the housing chamber from the outside. Inside the Bell was a thermos-like tube encased in lead and filled with a metallic liquid.
During operation, the Bell was covered by a ceramic material, apparently to act as insulation. Inside, two contra-rotating cylinders filled with a mercury-like and violet-colored substance spun a vortex of energy, which emitted a strange phosphorescent blue light and made such a buzzing sound that operators nicknamed it the Bienenstock, or beehive.
Due to the phosphorescent light and reports that operators suffered from nervous-system disruption, headaches, and a metallic taste, Witkowski concluded the Bell’s operation involved iodizing radiation as well as a very strong magnetic field of energy.
The scientists experimenting with the Bell would place various plants, animals, and animal tissue within its energy field.
"In the initial test period from November to December 1944, almost all the samples were destroyed," noted Cook.
"A crystalline substance formed within the tissues, destroying them from the inside; liquids, including blood, gelled and separated into clearly distilled fractions."
Very little is known for certain about the Bell. However, it was given the highest - and perhaps most unique - classification possible in the Third Reich. In a few captured documents, experimenters with the Bell were said to be working on something Kriegsentscheidend, or decisive for the war. Most top-secret German weapons, including the V rockets, were classified Kriegswichtig, or important to the war.
One major reason that so little is known about the Bell was the loss of the scientists involved in the project.
"They were taken out and shot by the SS between the 28th of April and the 4th of May, 1945," explained Witkowski.
"Records show that there were 62 of them, many of them Germans. There were no survivors, but then that’s hardly surprising.... It’s quite clear that someone had gone to great lengths to clean up."
The whole concept is a nightmare - Nazis tinkering with the building blocks of the universe. And it gets even worse.
To try and understand the purpose of the Bell requires a brief side trip into the amazing world of cutting-edge science and quantum physics. While discussions and articles about energy manipulation - whether termed cold fusion, antigravity, or free energy - have been generally discouraged as science fiction in mainstream America, many credible writers have dealt with the subject.
In his 2003 book "Winning the War: Advanced Weapons, Strategies, and Concepts for the Post-9/11 World", Colonel John B. Alexander noted, "A potential link between superconductor quantum mechanics and gravity has been inferred from recent quantum gravity research. Another approach to modifying gravity involved the manipulation of the quantum vacuum ZPE [Zero Point Energy found in the vacuum of space] field. One proposed experiment to manipulate the ZPE involves the use of ultrahigh-intensity lasers to irradiate a magnetized vacuum. If any of these are successful it will change energy issues on Earth and our relationship with the universe by allowing deep space travel.
The idea of gaining mastery - and power - from the environment around us is nothing new.
Such ideas were advanced by American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown, who, in the early 1920s, experimented with antigravity based on his understanding that a charged capacitor tended to move toward a positive plate when sufficiently energized in the hundred kilovolt and upward range.
Brown contended that all matter is essentially an “electrical condition.”
"It fact, it might be said that the concrete body of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy which, in itself, is quite intangible."
Brown’s theories echoed those of U.S. electrical engineer Nikola Tesla, whose discovery in 1888 of the rotating magnetic field led to alternating-current (AC) electricity transmission. Tesla foresaw limitless free energy by simply tapping into the Earth’s natural magnetic energy field.
In 1908, long before the idea of rotating magnetic fields was commonplace in science, Tesla stated: "Every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in motion this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested, the primary substance reverts to its normal state [stillness].
"It appears, then, possible for man through harnessed energy of the medium and suitable agencies for starting and stopping ether whirls to cause matter to form and disappear. At his command, almost without effort on his part, old worlds would vanish and new ones spring into being.
"He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, adjust its distance from the sun, guide it on its eternal journey along any path he might choose, through the depths of the universe. He could make planets collide and produce his [own] suns and stars, his heat and light, he could originate life in all its infinite forms. To cause at will the birth and death of matter would be man’s grandest deed, which would make him the master of physical creation, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny."
The belief that antigravity or other exotic technologies were passed from the Nazis to the Allies has been further supported by sporadic periodical coverage of antigravity in the late 1940s and early 1950s. This was at a time before the total blackout of news concerning energy-manipulation experimentation was enforced as a "matter of national security."
In 1956, the Swiss aviation journal "Interavia Aerospace Review" published an article titled “Towards Flight Without Stress or Strain... or Weight.”
The article carried the dateline of Washington, D.C., and stated, "Electro-gravitics research, seeking the source of gravity and its control, has reached a stage where profound implications for the entire human race begin to emerge. Perhaps the most startling and immediate implications of all involve aircraft, guided missiles and free space flight of all kinds."
The article added, "There are gravity research projects in every major country of the world. A few are over 30 years old."
It also mentioned that, over and above theoretical research, there was empirical research into the, "study of matter in its super-cooled, super-conductive state, of jet electron streams, peculiar magnetic effects [and] the electrical mechanics of the atom’s shell."
The article stated that the weight of some materials utilized in this research had been reduced by as much as 30 percent by "energizing" them. But in a premonition of what was to come, it added, "Security prevents disclosure of what precisely is meant by ‘energizing’ or in which country this work is underway."
Proving the ability of superconductors to produce antigravity effects, researchers at Pacific National Laboratory, in the late 1980s, cooled a ceramic superconductor with liquid nitrogen and levitated a round magnet in midair.
Some of the companies involved in this cutting- edge research, according to the Interavia Aerospace Review article, included:
• Lear, Inc.
• Glenn L. Martin Company
• Sperry-Rand Corporation
• Bell Aircraft
• Clarke Electronics Laboratories
• the U.S. General Electric Company
The names of these firms are especially noteworthy, because in his 2001 book on Zero Point energy, author Cook cited another 1956 magazine article naming aviation experts Lawrence D. Bell, George S. Trimble, and William P. Lear as stating that work was then under way with "nuclear fuels and equipment to cancel out gravity."
This article, from an unnamed publication and titled "The G-Engines Are Coming!" may have let slip mention of an incredible new technology.
"All matter within the ship would be influenced by the ship’s gravitation only," Lear was quoted as saying. "This way, no matter how fast you accelerated or changed course, your body would not feel it any more than it now feels the tremendous speed and acceleration of the earth."
During the 1960s and 1970s, public discussion of energy manipulation such as antigravity was virtually closed off, scorned as fantasy or conspiracy theory. Yet, it is clear that within government and military circles, work continued secretly in this area. Could it have been based on transferred Nazi super-science?
Bruce L. Cathie, a former New Zealand commercial pilot, theoretician, and an advocate of the existence of a worldwide energy grid, wrote in 1971, "Somewhere, I knew, [my proposed energy grid] system contained a clue to the truth of [Einstein’s] Unified Field which, he had postulated, permeates all of existence. I didn’t know at the time that this clue had already been found by scientists who were well ahead of me in the play.... for many years they have been carrying out full-scale research into the practical applications of the mathematical concept contained in that theory."
Cathie speculated: "The only way to traverse the vast distances of space is to possess the means of manipulating, or altering, the very structure of space itself; altering the space-time geometric matrix, which to us provides the illusion of form and distance.
"...for distance is an illusion.
"The only thing keeping places apart in space is time. If it were possible to move from one position to another in space in an infinitely small amount of time, or 'zero time,' then both the positions would co- exist, according to our awareness. By speeding up the geometric of time we will be able to bring distant places within close proximity.
"This is the secret of UFOs - they travel by means of altering the spatial dimensions around them and repositioning in space-time."
One hint that the U.S. government experimented with such technology came in December 1980, when Betty Cash, Vickie Landrum, and Landrum’s seven-year-old grandson Colby encountered a large, glowing, diamond-shaped object hovering in the air near the small town of Huffman, Texas.
The trio, supported by other witnesses in the area, said the object was surrounded by military CH-47 helicopters. Days later, the trio experienced painful swellings and skin blisters, along with headaches, nausea, and hair loss, all symptoms of intense electromagnetic radiation. In 1985, the three victims sought $20 million in damages from the U.S. government, but the following year, their suit was dismissed, based on denials by the government that any such craft existed in its inventory.
Yet another small public exposure to exotic energy manipulation may have come with the accidental discovery of single-atom (monatomic) elements in the 1970s by Phoenix-area cotton farmer David Hudson. His discovery was followed by several scientific papers exploring the mysteries of the atomic structure, nucleus deformation, and electromagnetism. Hudson himself obtained eleven worldwide patents on his "Orbitally Rearranged Monatomic Elements (ORME)."
Hudson found that the nuclei of such monatomic matter acted in an unusual manner. Under certain circumstances, they began spinning and creating strangely deformed shapes. Oddly, as these nuclei spun, they began to come apart on their own.
It was found, for example, that in the element rhodium 103, the nucleus became deformed in a ratio of two to one, which made it twice as long as it is wide, and entered a high- spin state. When all electrons are brought under the control of the nucleus of an atom, the nucleus attains a “highward,” or high-spin, state. When reaching a state of reciprocal relationship, the electrons turn to pure white light and the individual atoms fall apart, producing a white monatomic powder.
Using thermo-gravimetric analysis, it was found that a sample of Hudson’s monatomic matter lost 44 percent of its original weight when reduced to this white-powder state. By being either heated or cooled, it would gain or lose weight.
"By repeated annealing we could make the material weigh less than the pan weighed it was sitting in," said Hudson, ". . . or we could make it weigh 300–400 times what its beginning weight was, depending on whether we were heating or cooling it.... [I]f you take this white powder and put it on a quartz boat and heat it up to the point where it fuses with the quartz, it becomes black and it regains all its weight again. This makes no sense, it’s impossible, it can’t happen. But there it is."
British author Laurence Gardner noted, "Hudson was then asked to reverse the process fully by turning the powder back into a piece of metallic gold. It was like asking someone to remake an apple from a pan of apple sauce - seemingly impossible! Early trial led to some disastrous results.... By late 1995, the difficulties had been overcome and the figurative apple had indeed been rebuilt from the apple sauce.
"From this, there was no doubt that it was possible (just as in ancient metallurgical lore) to manufacture gold from a seemingly non-gold base product. From a commencing sample which registered as iron, silica, and aluminum, emerged an ingot which analyzed as pure gold. After centuries of trial, error, frustration, and failure, the Philosopher’s Stone of ancient times had at last been rediscovered."
Gardner amassed a wealth of material linking the white powder of gold to alchemists, the legendary Knights Templar, Solomon’s treasure, the manna of the Israelites, Moses, and ancient Egypt.
By the early 1990s, scientific papers were being published by the Niels Bohr Institute and Argonne National and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, substantiating the existence of these high-spin, monatomic elements and their power as superconductors.
Hudson also met with Dr. Hal Puthoff, director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Austin, Texas. Puthoff performs cutting-edge research into zero-point energy and gravity as a zero-point fluctuation force. He and other scientists have theorized that enough energy exists in the space found in the atoms inside an empty coffee cup to boil all the oceans of the Earth if fully utilized.
Puthoff had also theorized that matter reacting in two dimensions should lose about 44 percent of its gravitational weight, exactly the weight loss found by Hudson. When it was found that Hudson’s elements, when heated, could achieve a gravitational attraction of less than zero, Puthoff concluded the powder was “exotic matter” capable of bending time and space.
The material’s antigravitational properties were confirmed when it was shown that a weighing pan weighed less when the powder was placed in it than it did empty. The matter had passed its antigravitational properties to the pan.
Adding to their amazement, it was found that when the white powder was heated to a certain degree, not only did its weight disappear but the powder itself vanished from sight. When a spatula was used to stir around in the pan, there apparently was nothing there. Yet, as the material cooled, it reappeared in its original configuration. The material had not simply disappeared; it apparently had moved into another dimension.
Hudson also saw evidence of perpetual energy through the use of a superconductor.
"You literally start the superconductor flowing by applying a magnetic field," he said. "It responds to this by flowing light inside and building a bigger Meissner Field [Walter Meissner in 1933 discovered that light flowing within a superconductor produces an electromagnetic energy field that excludes external magnetic fields] around it.
"You can put your magnet down and walk away. Come back a hundred years later and it is still flowing exactly as when you left. It will never slow down. There is absolutely no resistance; it is perpetual motion and will run forever."
This new technology dealt with the manipulation and control of basic energy.
Some scientists believed that such control at the atomic and subatomic level might do much more than offer new propulsion technology. It might open the door to antigravity, limitless free energy, a cure for diseases such as AIDS and cancer, an end to the aging process, faster-than-light speeds, and much more, perhaps even inter-dimensional and time travel.
Since science is coming to the conclusion that gravity and time are interconnected aspects of energy, it is possible that the Bell was used for experimenting with time travel. This possibility is not as outrageous as it sounds, as many notable scientists and authors have written seriously about the possibility of time travel.
Astronomer and Pulitzer Prize winner Carl Sagan, director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University at the time of his death in 1996, when asked about time travel, stated: "Right now we’re in one of those classic, wonderfully evocative moments in science when we don’t know, when there are those on both sides of the debate, and when what is at stake is very mystifying and very profound.
"If we could travel into the past, it’s mind-boggling what would be possible. For one thing, history would become an experimental science, which it certainly isn’t today. The possible insights into our own past and nature and origins would be dazzling. For another, we would be facing the deep paradoxes of interfering with the scheme of causality that has led to our own time and ourselves. I have no idea whether it’s possible, but it’s certainly worth exploring."
Jenny Randles, a science-oriented British author, presented compelling examples of recent discoveries in her 2005 book Breaking the Time Barrier, which indicate the very real possibility of time travel. She noted that "a race to build a time machine has been going on since at least the Second World War."
After discussing "worm holes" in time and space, and other possible means of time travel, she pointed out, "... [F]rom our understanding of physics - if you travel faster than light, then you can overtake the flow of events that light happens to transmit. Since the passage of these events forms what we interpret as time, then by traveling faster than light you ought to travel through time. Spaceships that outstrip light speed are always going to moonlight as time machines."
Today, more than one scientist has claimed to have broken the light barrier, though official acceptance has been lacking.
This horrendous idea sounds preposterous, but the science is there and the Bell did exist.
No wonder certain powerful persons would go to any lengths to obtain or conceal such knowledge. Just such attempts began in the closing days of World War II, as the victors sought to learn the secrets of Nazi super- science.
It is clear that certain members of the American military were keen to learn Nazi secrets, as shown by this portion of a 1945 letter from Major General Hugh J. Knerr to Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz, the commander of U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe: "Occupation of German scientific and industrial establishments has revealed the fact that we have been alarmingly backward in many fields of research. If we do not take this opportunity to seize the apparatus and the brains that developed it and put the combination back to work promptly, we will remain several years behind while we attempt to cover a field already exploited."
Consider the rush into Czechoslovaki a by General George S. Patton’s Third Army even as the Europe an war wound to a close.
Mystery of the Long Runway
"The madcap, and some would say, militarily and politically indefensible, Allied dash away from Berlin and to south-central Germany and Prague are consistent with American knowledge, at some very high level, of Kammler’s SS Sonderkommando black projects and secret weapons empire," wrote Farrell.
Vernon Bowen, whose 1950s-era book on UFOs was classified by the U.S. government, relates how one of Patton’s officers, Colonel Charles H. Reed, organized the escape of the Lippizan horses from the Spanish Riding School at the end of the war, an event memorialized in the 1963 Disney film Miracle of the White Stallions.
Bowen noted that Reed saved the horses, "while on his mission of persuading the head of German intelligence to turn over to the U.S. the many truckloads of documents buried on the Czech-Austrian border - documents which are still secret today."
Could these documents have been Kammler’s technology files?
The Allies’ rejection of SS chief Himmler’s last-minute offer to surrender may not have been due to the "frantic attempts of a desperate mass murderer to avoid his inevitable fate," as described by mainstream historians, but instead because Himmler had lost real control over the exotic technology. After all, Himmler was too high-profile a person to be allowed to live on after the war. He reportedly committed suicide by taking a poison capsule on May 23, 1945, after being caught trying to sneak through British lines disguised as a German Army private.
Hans Kammler, on the other hand, was largely unknown to the public, though he undoubtedly was high on the list of wanted Nazi war criminals, considering his involvement in the construction of concentration camps and their gas chambers as well as his participation in the leveling of the Warsaw ghetto.
"Unlike Himmler," noted Cook, "Kammler had something of value to deal - something tangible. By early April , Hitler and Himmler had placed under his direct control every secret weapon system of any consequence within the Third Reich - weapons that had no counterpart in the inventories of the three powers that were now bearing down on central Germany from the east and the west."
"The deal had already probably been cut between Kammler’s representatives and OSS [the U.S. Office of Strategic Services] station chief in Zurich, Allen Dulles, or via General Patton himself," Farrell surmised.
If such a deal was made with Patton, he did not live to see the results.
On 9 December 1945, while riding in his 1939 Cadillac staff car, Patton suffered a head injury when his car was struck by a 2 1/2-ton military truck that turned in front of them. Patton’s driver and a passenger, his chief of staff Major General Hobart “Hap” Gay, were uninjured. Paralyzed from the neck down, Patton was taken to a military hospital in Heidelberg, Germany, where he died on December 21.
Since the war, there have been several conspiracy theories regarding Patton’s death - one being that he was killed by his own government. Most have concentrated on his vocal assertions that the United States should have carried the war on into Russia and put an end to communism, plus his public advocacy of reinstating ranking Nazis to help rebuild Germany.
Noting that Patton, whose forces drove straight to the heart of Nazi research in Czechoslovakia, may well have been aware of Kammler and his Nazi superweapons, Farrell stated that if Patton was deliberately silenced, "then surely this [knowledge of Nazi super-science] is the most plausible motivation for the deed."
Did knowledge of the incredible ability to manipulate energy die with top Nazis at the end of the war? Consider the fate of Hans Kammler.
As the war drew to a close, Kammler made no secret that he intended to use both the V-2 scientists and rockets under his control as leverage for a deal with the Allies. On April 2, 1945, on Kammler’s orders, a special train carried rockets and five hundred technicians and engineers escorted by a hundred SS troopers to an Alpine redoubt in Bavaria.
According to von Braun and Dornberger, Kammler planned to "bargain with the Americans or one of the other Allies for his own life in exchange for the leading German rocket specialists."
"[Kammler] came to me in early April in order to say good-bye," recalled Nazi armaments minister Speer.
"For the first time in our four-year association, Kammler did not display his usual dash. On the contrary, he seemed insecure and slippery with his vague, obscure hints about why I should transfer to Munich with him. He said efforts were being made in the SS to get rid of the Führer. He himself, however, was planning to contact the Americans. In exchange for their guaranty of freedom, he would offer them the entire technology of our jet planes, as well as the A-4 rocket and other important developments...."
On 4 April 1945, when von Braun pressed Kammler for permission to resume rocket research, the SS officer quietly announced that he was about to disappear for "an indefinite length of time."
He was true to his word: no one saw Kammler again. As everyone knows, von Braun and Dornberger, along with other scientists and many of the V-2 rockets, eventually made their way to the United States, becoming founding members of its modern space program with no help from Kammler.
Jean Michel, himself an inmate of concentration camp Dora, which provided slave labor for Kammler’s rocket program, wrote of Kammler: "The chief of the SS secret weapon empire, the man in Himmler’s confidence, disappeared without a trace. Even more disturbing is the fact that the architect of the concentration camps, builder of the gas chambers, executioner of Dora, overall chief of all the SS missiles has sunk into oblivion. There is the Bormann mystery, the Mengele enigma; as far as I know, no one, to this day, has taken much interest in the fate of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler."
Michel, along with others, wondered, "Why had the 'cold and brutal calculator' described by Speer so abruptly discarded the trump cards he had so patiently accumulated?"
As the war drew to a close, Kammler, "had the good fortune to inspect the Czechoslovakian stretch of the front," wrote Witkowski. "After this event, nobody knew what became of him. Perhaps he died, though it is unlikely that this would never have been recorded."
The reports of Kammler’s death are varied and mutually exclusive.
One version has him committing suicide in a forest between Prague and Pilsen two days after Germany surrendered, while another said he was shot by his own SS aide in Prague. Another version was that he died in a shootout with Czech partisans. The Red Cross initially reported Kammler as "missing," but this was later changed to "dead" upon the testimony of a relative. The one common denominator regarding Kammler’s various death reports was that he was last seen in north central Czechoslovakia, in close proximity to the Wenzeslaus Mine - and the Bell.
Despite the lack of a body, no effort appeared to have been taken to establish the truth of Kammler’s death and, unlike his superior Bormann, Kammler was not tried in absentia at Nuremberg.
Kammler was not alone in his escape. Dozens of high-ranking former SS or party members simply disappeared. Many of them were associated with advanced technology programs.
Did Kammler and his cohorts escape with weapons plans for the amazing Bell project? Whoever controlled such secret technology was certainly in a strong position to strike a deal with one of the Allied nations.
With secret projects in the hands of the fanatical SS and with factories and research facilities scattered over - and under - the countryside, it is entirely conceivable that saucers, uranium weapons, the Bell, and other exotic technologies could have been developed without the knowledge of anyone except Himmler, Bormann, and Kammler. The high-profile Himmler had been taken out of the loop as far back as 1943.
The fates of Martin Bormann and Hans Kammler remain unproven.
"[T]he evidence is strong enough to suggest collusion at the highest levels between the United States and Nazi Germany governments - and that collusion extends down to those within U-234, its officers, crew and passengers - and has been maintained by powerful parties with vested interests on both sides of the Atlantic ever since," stated Hydrick.
If the highest circle of America’s ruling elite indeed obtained Nazi super-science in the wake of World War II, it came with a price - one these prewar, pro-Nazi sympathizers were willing to accept.
When American authorities realized the alternative and nonlinear physics within Nazi science, they knew it was beyond the frame of reference of most U.S. scientists, which is why they recruited so many Germans and brought them to America.
"The trouble was," recounted one government insider, "when the Americans took it all home with them, they found, too late, that it came infected with a virus - you take the science on, you take on aspects of the ideology as well."
President Eisenhower, as he was leaving office, gave his celebrated warning to the American people about the spiritual and cultural dangers of "the military industrial complex." With the influx of Nazi "Paperclip" scientists, many if not most of whom - including Dornberger, Oberth, and von Braun - were members of Kammler's "think tank", this warning by someone in the know must surely be interpreted differently than current standard explanations. Having fought the world's first "military-industrial complex" and doubtless seen at least some of its extraordinary inventory of weapons and theoretical papers,
President Eisenhower is surely raising another ominous, though overlooked, specter: Just whose military-industrial complex is he really warning about? What possible spiritual and cultural dangers were there to the American people from good old American companies like Boeing, DuPont, Lockheed, Hughes, and so on, unless, in importing ex-Nazi scientists and their unusual methods and insights and experimental results (often achieved at the cost of enormous human suffering), we inadvertently imported an underlying ideology at variance with traditional morality.
The intense interest of the Nazi leadership in occult or hidden subjects - from ancient artifacts to legends of prehistorical high-tech super-races - is well documented.
One legend suggests that the Holy Grail eventually became one of the prized possessions of the Cathars, a group of Gnostics who were exterminated in 1244 by a crusade organized by Pope Innocent and his Inquisition. According to this legend, leading up to their final decimation on March 1, the Cathars took their most sacred books and artifacts, which included both the Holy Shroud and the Holy Grail and then sought refuge in their nearly impenetrable mountain-top fortress of Montsegur, the principal seat of the Cathar Church since the year 1230. While their fortress was under siege by soldiers of the Inquisition, two or more Cathars are believed to have clandestinely escaped down the side of the mountain with many of the Cathar treasures, including both the Shroud and Mary’s Holy Grail, and then to have hid them in the surrounding countryside. The recovery of the Cathar relics in southern France has been an obsession of treasure hunters ever since. In 1931 Otto Rahn was sent to Montsegur by Heinrich Himmler to search for the lost Cathar treasures. Rahn discovered tunnels and caverns beneath Montsegur, but he died mysteriously before he was able to extract any of the treasure interred within them. Another SS officer, Otto Skorzeny, was then dispatched by Himmler to complete the job, and according to one eye-witness account he was later seen leaving Montsegur with a plane load of relics headed for Himmler’s secret fortress of Wewelsburg. Then, states an additional eye witness account from the end of World War II, a German Heinkel 277 V-1 left Salzburg, Austria, bound for the East, possibly Nepal or Tibet, with a plane load of cargo believed to include the ancient Cathar relics. According to Howard Buechner, a retired U.S. Army Colonel, on board the German plane were also “twelve stone tablets of the Germanic Grail, which contained the key to ultimate knowledge.” The Holy Grail could, therefore, currently either reside in either southern France or in the Far East. But one alternate ending of its odyssey asserts that the Nazis eventually transported the Holy Grail from Berchtesgaden to Antarctica by a clandestine submarine and it now resides within a stone obelisk marking a cave in the Mühlig-Hoffman Mountains. This mysterious cave, known as the Emerald Cave, is supposedly linked by tunnels to caverns inside the Earth, where legends imply a subterranean civilization may exist. Interestingly, the Antarctic cave’s association with an emerald links the Holy Grail with the Stone of Heaven, a large emerald referred to by Wolfram Eschenbach in "Parzival" as being the true Holy Grail.
One legend suggests that the Holy Grail eventually became one of the prized possessions of the Cathars, a group of Gnostics who were exterminated in 1244 by a crusade organized by Pope Innocent and his Inquisition. According to this legend, leading up to their final decimation on March 1, the Cathars took their most sacred books and artifacts, which included both the Holy Shroud and the Holy Grail and then sought refuge in their nearly impenetrable mountain-top fortress of Montsegur, the principal seat of the Cathar Church since the year 1230. While their fortress was under siege by soldiers of the Inquisition, two or more Cathars are believed to have clandestinely escaped down the side of the mountain with many of the Cathar treasures, including both the Shroud and Mary’s Holy Grail, and then to have hid them in the surrounding countryside. The recovery of the Cathar relics in southern France has been an obsession of treasure hunters ever since.
In 1931 Otto Rahn was sent to Montsegur by Heinrich Himmler to search for the lost Cathar treasures. Rahn discovered tunnels and caverns beneath Montsegur, but he died mysteriously before he was able to extract any of the treasure interred within them. Another SS officer, Otto Skorzeny, was then dispatched by Himmler to complete the job, and according to one eye-witness account he was later seen leaving Montsegur with a plane load of relics headed for Himmler’s secret fortress of Wewelsburg. Then, states an additional eye witness account from the end of World War II, a German Heinkel 277 V-1 left Salzburg, Austria, bound for the East, possibly Nepal or Tibet, with a plane load of cargo believed to include the ancient Cathar relics. According to Howard Buechner, a retired U.S. Army Colonel, on board the German plane were also “twelve stone tablets of the Germanic Grail, which contained the key to ultimate knowledge.”
The Holy Grail could, therefore, currently either reside in either southern France or in the Far East. But one alternate ending of its odyssey asserts that the Nazis eventually transported the Holy Grail from Berchtesgaden to Antarctica by a clandestine submarine and it now resides within a stone obelisk marking a cave in the Mühlig-Hoffman Mountains. This mysterious cave, known as the Emerald Cave, is supposedly linked by tunnels to caverns inside the Earth, where legends imply a subterranean civilization may exist. Interestingly, the Antarctic cave’s association with an emerald links the Holy Grail with the Stone of Heaven, a large emerald referred to by Wolfram Eschenbach in "Parzival" as being the true Holy Grail.