There can be little doubt that the failure of Rudolf Hess’ peace mission to Britain on the eve of the attack on Russia created the unwanted two-front war that cost Hitler the victory. After the failure of Hess’s ill-fated flight, his place in the Nazi hierarchy was taken by Martin Bormann.

Ten Days To Destiny:  The Secret Story Of The Hess Peace Initiative And British Efforts To Strike A Deal With Hitler
by John Costello

The dramatic fight of Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s infamous deputy, to England in May 1941 has been a mystery and a source of controversy for fifty years.
The official version maintains that this was the solitary adventure of a madman, unrelated to the course of World War II. But new archival research in Europe and the United States, substantiated by the author’s exclusive and unprecedented access to KGB files, reveals another story - one that shows just how close England came to making a peace deal with Hitler’s Germany.
In this latest of John Costello’s important and highly controversial re-examinations of modern history, "Ten Days to Destiny" reveals how Hess came to England at Hitler’s direction and with the connivance of the British secret service and powerful elements in British society, bearing a serious peace offer that would have allowed England to retain its empire in return for her support for Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union.
To understand the significance of Hess’s mission, Costello takes us back to 1940, to ten critical days during that summer of Dunkirk and the fall of France, when it was unclear whether England would survive the war.
"This was their finest hour" was how Winston Churchill described the spirit of the nation, enshrining the myth that his people and government would fight Hitler, whatever the cost. But declassified government archives, private diaries, and captured German documents reveal that Churchill’s toughest battles were actually with senior members of his own administration, who had decided the time had come to negotiate a compromise peace.
Costello not only traces their secret maneuvering with Berlin [climaxing in Hess’s arrival the following year], but also details the desperate cabinet battle Churchill had to wage against them - which he came within a hairbreadth of losing.
"Ten Days to Destiny" can truly claim to be not only the first behind-the-scenes account of the agonizing history of 1940, but also the first major historical work to draw from actual KGB documentation. It also reveals that Ambassador Joseph Kennedy was the prime suspect for 'The Doctor', the code name given by Hess’s staff to his source of reason why Hitler halted the advance on Dunkirk and details the German plot to bring the Duke of Windsor back to the throne.
And it exposes the masterful cunning of Churchill’s Machiavellian exploitation of American Embassy spy Tyler Kent both to silence his enemies and to blackmail President Roosevelt into helping England - supreme gamble that quite literally saved the Allied effort to stop Hitler.

These and many other revelations finally unlock the secrets of Hess’s mysterious mission. It is a dramatic story, scrupulously researched and rivetingly told, that is certain to rewrite the history of the critical opening phase of World War II. 

John Costello is a Cambridge-educated historian who has spent eight years researching "Ten Days to Destiny". He is the author of a number of books, including "The Mask of Treachery", "The Pacific War", and the prize winning national best seller "And I Was There". He lives in New York City.

Some Nazi leaders, including Himmler and Bormann, became uncertain of victory and began laying plans for their survival. 

They also turned to science for new 'Wunderwaffen', or wonder weapons, that might turn the tide of war in their favor.

Nazi Wonder Weapon

Just six days after the D-Day Invasion of Europe, on 12 June 1944, the residents of London were startled to hear a droning buzz in the skies over their city. They were more startled when the sound suddenly stopped and moments later a huge explosion rocked the East London neighborhood of Mile End, killing eight civilians.

It was the first of the V-1 Buzz bombs - a forerunner of today’s cruise missiles

The V-1 and the later V-2 rockets that terrorized London are two of the more famous examples of German war technology. These Vergeltungswaffe, or retaliation weapons, were developed at the secret German rocket facility Peenemünde and put into operation just after the D-Day landings in Normandy, France.

From 12 June 1944, until 20 August, more than eight thousand of the V-1 rockets (each carrying a ton of explosives) rained down on London, inflicting 45,479 casualties and destroying 75,000 buildings. The less numerous V-2 rockets - which, unlike the V-1, could not be seen, heard, or intercepted in flight - nevertheless produced more than 10,000 casualties in the British capital.

In addition to the vengeance weapons, the Germans produced a number of scientific breakthroughs in their quest for weapons technology during World War II. German ingenuity and efficiency appeared capable of overcoming almost any obstacle. One clear example may be found simply by comparing figures from its armaments industry. Despite constant bombing by the Allies, overall production of tanks, small arms, ships, and aircraft was higher at the beginning of 1945 than in 1941, when Germany was victorious on all fronts and America had not yet entered the war.

After the Battle of Britain, Germany's air domination over Europe began to decline, sliding down a slippery slope which ultimately resulted in one major reason for its defeat. German means of industrial, arms, and energy production became increasing venerable to attack by Allied bombers. The munitions plants needed to produce the arms to maintain the war effort, such as tanks, airplanes and cannons were all targets of Allied air bombardment. Likewise, high priority targets included oil production and refining facilities which produced the fuel and lubricants needed to make the war effort possible.

One way Germany responded to air attacks was by moving munitions facilities and high-value industrial plants underground. Some of these facilities were vast, encompassing miles of underground tunnels. They housed both the industrial means of war production and the workers themselves.

In addition to underground facilities, camouflage was used to hide numerous smaller facilities. These many camouflaged and underground plants formed a web of sub-assembly producers. Each sub-assembly facility sent their product to a larger or a more centrally located facility for further work. From there it might be transported again for final assembly. As an example, Type XXI U-boats were modular, being produced in pipe-like sections throughout Germany. They were transported by rail to sites near the North Sea and only finally assembled at water's edge. Likewise, some types of aircraft were only finally assembled near the runway.

Further confusing Allied air intelligence, the plants were constantly moving. Eventually everything of value was to be moved underground, to bomb-proof shelters. Facilities were kept on the move until space was available for this underground re-location. These tactics worked for the Germans. There were simply too many moving targets for the Allies to completely stop German war production.

Of course the weak link in this scheme was transportation. The railroad system was the only practical and most energy efficient method of moving all these sub-assemblies. Trucking material was done but in a petroleum-starved Third Reich, it was not possible to sustain a truck-based transportation system necessary to meet all the requirements of wartime Germany. Recognizing this, the Allies bombed railroad centers using the heavy, four-engine B-17 bombers.

By mid-1943 the American P-51 Mustang was introduced into the field of play. This aircraft could be thought of as a Spitfire which could fly for eight hours. Its range allowed it to escort Allied bombers to their targets throughout the Reich. After escorting the bombers to their targets the P-51s were released to attack "targets of opportunity". A P-51 can fly close to the ground and attack individual trains, which they did. 


By mid-1944, it is a wonder that any trains within Germany could move at all. Some were forced to hide in mountain tunnels, as they did near the Jonas Valley, running at night or when there were no enemy aircraft reported.

As a result of these day and night air attacks, Germany found itself increasingly the victim of shortages of material and fuel, limiting its ability to make war.

Though Germany's air defense system was the best of any warring nation, it was clear that if Germany was to survive, improvement was imperative.

The Heinkel He 219 Uhu ("Owl"),  the best Axis night fighter, served with the German Luftwaffe in the later stages of World War II. A relatively sophisticated design, the He 219 possessed a variety of innovations, including Lichtenstein SN-2 advanced VHF-band intercept radar, also used on the Ju 88G and Bf 110G night fighters. It was also the first operational military aircraft to be equipped with ejection seats and the first operational German World War II-era aircraft with tricycle landing gear. Had the Uhu been available in quantity, it might have had a significant effect on the strategic night bombing offensive of the Royal Air Force but only 294 of all models were built by the end of the war and these saw only limited servic.

The He 219 had an auspicious combat debut. On the night of 11–12 June 1943, Werner Streib flew the V9 and shot down five bombers between 01:05 and 02:22 hours, before crashing on landing] Claims have been made that, "In the next ten days the three Heinkel He 219A-0 pre-production aircraft would shoot down a total of 20 RAF aircraft, including six of the previously "untouchable" de Havilland Mosquito fighter-bombers.

The first major production series was the He 219 A-0, although initially the pre-production series, it matured into a long running production series, due to numerous changes incorporated into the design, along with the cancellation of several planned variants. Production problems as a result of Allied bombing in March meant the A-0 did not reach Luftwaffe units until October 1943. The A-0 was usually armed with two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in the wing roots and up to four 20 mm or 30 mm cannon in a ventral weapons bay. The first 10–15 aircraft were delivered with the 490 MHz UHF-band FuG 212 "Lichtenstein" C-1 radar with a 4 × 8-dipole element Matratze antenna array. 104 He 219 A-0s were built until the summer of 1944, the majority of them at EHW (Ernst Heinkel Wien) or Heinkel-Süd in Wien-Schwechat.

The first planned version to reach production was the He 219 A-2 model, with two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannon, as an offensive Schräge Musik upward-firing system in the rear fuselage. With Schräge Musik, the ventral weapons bay held two cannon due to space limitations. The A-2 featured an updated, 90 MHz VHF-band Telefunken FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar system, complete with its larger, high-drag 4 × 2-dipole element Hirschgeweih aerials. It initially had a longer minimum range than the C-1 radar but improved accuracy and resolution and was also less vulnerable to chaff jamming, through the late summer of 1944. 

While the performance of the A-2 was not extraordinary—approximately 580 km/h (360 mph) speed—it was enough of an advance over the Messerschmitt Bf 110Gs and Dornier Do 217Ns, for the crew to chase several bombers in a single sortie.

To improve its ability to intercept the Mosquito, the He 219 had excess weight removed. With some weapon and radio systems deleted, the aircraft was able to attain a speed of 650 km/h (400 mph). This version was given the designation A-6. None of these were produced.

The last major production version was the A-7 with improved, unitized DB 603E engines. The A-7 typically had two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon in the wing roots (inboard of the propeller arcs), two 20 mm MG 151/20 in the ventral weapons bay and two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108s as Schräge Musik. Production of 210 aircraft was to start November/December 1944 but the number produced is not known as original documents have been lost or contained no sub-version number.

The Germans already had jet and rocket interceptors and was experimenting with radically new types of air defense systems. Anti-aircraft rockets, guided both from the ground and by infra-red homing devices were invented. Vortex cannons, sun cannons, air-explosive turbulence bombs, rockets trailing long wire to ensnare enemy propellers, numerous electronic jamming devices, and electronic devices designed to stop ignition-based engines were all under development as the conflict ended.

The Germans already had jet and rocket interceptors and was experimenting with radically new types of air defense systems. Anti-aircraft rockets, guided both from the ground and by infra-red homing devices were invented. Vortex cannons, sun cannons, air-explosive turbulence bombs, rockets trailing long wire to ensnare enemy propellers, numerous electronic jamming devices, and electronic devices designed to stop ignition-based engines were all under development as the conflict ended.

As the conflict drew to its conclusion, military planners in Germany considered the idea of concentrating their ground and air defenses into specific fortresses for a last stand. This would buy them time. They needed time to perfect new "Siegerswaffen", super-weapons so powerful that they could turn the course of the war for Germany by themselves.

A mountain fortress or "Alpenfestung" was to be set up in the German held areas of Northern Italy, Austria and Germany in roughly the areas in which these countries converged with each other and Switzerland. A fortress was to be set up in the Harz Mountains of Thruingia including several large underground complexes. This would extend from Nordhausen in the north down through Kahla and into the Jonas Valley. Another similar fortress complex was scheduled for the Owl Mountains separating Poland from Czechoslovakia including "Der Riese". Another fortress was to be set up in the Black Forest of Southern Germany. Other minor islands of resistance were to be set up in Norway, the Bohemian forest and the Bavarian forest.

These fortifications were to house soldiers, mostly SS units. They would also provide underground hangers and bomb-proof overhangs for aircraft take-offs and landings. Missiles, such as the V-l and V-2, and other weapons were to be mass produced there and fired automatically, right off the automated assembly line. Exotic weaponry was to be employed, along with especially trained mountain troops, defending the mountain passes into these fortresses.

History tells us the Alpenfestung never actually happened. It did not happen because German construction was simply not able to make these places ready in time. What is important for us to realize is that the weaponry for these fortresses was being developed as the Second World War drew to a close. Few of these weapons reached the operational stage but many were in various stages of development.

Technological advances were seen in almost every area. The rate and quality was astounding.

Plastics, which only came into general use in the United States during the 1950s, were developed in Nazi Germany. Bakelite, polystyrene (under the name Trolitul), Plexiglas, Polyethylene (forerunner of today’s plastic Baggies and syringes), polyamide (Nylon), and Aldols (a derivative of Polyvinyl) were all produced during wartime.

The various forms of plastic were produced under a consortium of companies but led by I.G. Farben, which also in 1941 synthesized the opiate methadone and Demerol under the name “Pethidine.”

Television, which most Americans did not get to see until the early 1950s, was highly developed in Nazi Germany. More than 150,000 persons in twenty-eight public viewing rooms in Berlin saw clear television broadcasts of the 1936 Olympics.

They watched screens equipped with Fernseh 180-line cathode ray tube projectors that presented a picture about forty-eight by forty-two inches. In 1939, the German firm Fernseh began developing a miniaturized TV system that allowed pilots to guide both bombs and missiles after launching.

This system was used in the anti-aircraft rocket Wasserfall, or waterfall.

“Many of these tests failed,” noted author Joseph P. Farrell. “But by the war’s end, a successful test of the television-guided ‘Tonne’ missile was conducted by German scientists for the Allies in Berlin, with the target being a photograph of a little girl’s face. The test was successful, much to the impressed, and doubtless shocked, Allied observers.”

Tanks, which began the war as little more than armor-plated bulldozers designed to support infantry, were developed into independent, thickly armored machines powered by gas turbines, with guns stabilized while moving, hydrokinetic power transmissions, and defenses against chemical and biological attacks.

 Panther G - Night Fighting Tank

Some few Panthers were equipped with special infrared devices for night combat. The "Heereswaffenamt" WaPrüf 8, in cooperation with the AEG was dealing with this kind of optical equipment since 1936, but development was discontinued and the decision to further investigate in this area was not made until the Allies gained total air superiority in 1943. From now on much energy was invested in the project.

The results of these investigations, which were lead by Ministerialrat Dr.-Ing. H.Gärtner Heereswaffenamt/WaPrüf 8, were, that in 1943 the Wehrmacht equipped some few Panthers with 200 watt infra-red searchlights FG 1250 and a BIWA (Bildwandler - image converter), which converted the infra-red image into a visible reproduction. In the first tests at the armoured forces school at Fallingbostel (North Germany) near Hannover the crews trained to drive and to aim at night. Admittedly the searchlight, in combination with the infrared receiver/gun sight, had a range of up to 600 meters in clear weather at night, limiting the long range advantage of the excellent KwK42 75mm/L70.

Because of this reason the developers mounted an even greater 600mm searchlight on a halftrack, the Sd.Kfz. 251/20 "UHU", which was intended to be attached to each platoon to enhance the Night Fighting range of the platoon.

Finally the Wehrmacht planned to use a halftrack called "FALKE" in combination with the vehicles mentioned. This halftrack was intended to be the transporter for a Panzer Grenadier Squad, which was equipped with Night Fighting capable Sturmgewehr-44s called VAMPIR. The Wehrmacht codename for this Kampfgruppe consisting of UHU/FALKE/VAMPIR was SPERBER and intended for night fighting at combat ranges up to 2500 metres.

Night Fighting Panthers in Action

In the summer 1944 the Panthers of 3.Kompanie, 24th Panzerregiment, 116th Panzerdivision, were equipped with UHU on the battle/excercise-area Bergen, and actually trained in the use of the night fighting concept SPERBER. Hitler planned the mission of this Kompanie to be during the Operation WACHT AM RHEIN [Battle of the Bulge] and actually some squads were transferred to the western front, but never saw action there.

Starting on 15 January 1945 all Panthers were to be outfitted with the FG 1250.

 Panther at the Zoo
Tiergarten, Berlin 2 May 1945

Below the vast bulk of the Zoo Bunker one of three giant Flak towers designed to defend Berlin from air attack, some remnants of the city's defenders gather
in an attempt to break out of the doomed capital.

Amongst which are troops from the
9th Fallschirmjäger and Münchberg Panzer Divisions, including a rare Night Fighting equipped
Panther G of Oberleutnant Rasim's Company
1/29th Panzer Regiment

Some German tanks were so far ahead of their time, they were still being utilized in other nations as late as battles in the 1970s.

To counter the threat of modern tanks, the Germans developed simple, but very effective, portable rocket launchers armed with a hollow charge such as the Panzerschreck bazooka and the easily produced Panzerfaust, a forerunner of today’s hand-carried rocket-propelled grenade (RPG).

The innovative 9-mm German MP-40 Schmeisser machine pistol saw extensive use during the war, and its successors, the MP-43 and the MP- 44 assault rifles, became the forerunners of today’s ubiquitous AK-47.


Late in the war, some MP-44s carried an early but effective night-vision light and scope called the Vampir.

"Vampir" ZG 1229 Infrared System

The Vampir was not the first German Infrared System, but by the end of the war in 1945 it was the most compact and advanced system they had. The technology itself dates back to around the start of the war, when engineers developed the first infrared rangefinder for German light anti-tank artillery. This was improved and some heavier direct-fire artillery was equipped with it as well. By 1944 the Germans had developed a version flexible enough to be mounted on the Panther tank (Germany's most technologically advanced and complex tank) and by the last year of the war were ready to issue the man-portable Vampir system.

The Vampir system consisted of a "black" spot light, one component of its active infrared system, fixed atop the impressive StG-44 assault rifle. Below this infrared light was a range finder that could detect the light emitted by the IR lamp. Since this light was invisible to anyone not equipped with the system it gave a massive edge over relying on flashlights and flares for illumination. The system mounted on the gun was linked by insulated wire to a heavy battery pack and simple control box that the soldier wore in place of his normal gear’ a very crude analog to today's "OICW" system being developed by the United States. It could transform a normal soldier to one capable of fighting in complete darkness, be it a cave or a moonless night, without revealing his position.

There is dispute over whether or not the Vampir was actually issued to combat soldiers. Some reports claim it was given to special units of the Waffen-SS for testing, others claim it was issued to crews of the similarly equipped Panther.

Probably that what few units were combat-ready were probably issued to the ultra-elite commandos of commanders like Otto Skorzeny and perhaps in the final defense of Berlin. Chances are we will never know the exact truth as no photographs exist of troops utilizing the weapons in the field, but the system was proven to work.



At the end of the war in 1945, American military intelligence officers were shocked by the technology they found as Allied forces overran German research facilities.

Supersonic rockets, nerve gas, jet aircraft , guided missiles, stealth technology, hardened armor - even flying saucers - were just some of the groundbreaking technologies being developed in Nazi laboratories, workshops, and factories. To give some idea of the aspirations of Nazi scientists, the huge ME-264 was dubbed the “Amerika Bomber,” while a three-stage rocket was named the “Mars Rocket.”

As respected British historian Barrie Pitt noted, "[T]he Nazi war machine swung into action utilizing as much as it could of the most up-to-date scientific knowledge available, and as the war developed, the list of further achievements grew to staggering proportions. From guns firing ‘shells’ of air to detailed discussions of flying saucers; from beams of sound that were fatal to a man at 50 yards, to guns that fired around corners and others that could ‘see in the dark’ - the list is awe-inspiring in its variety."

Pitt stated that while some German technology was less developed than imagined at the time, "some were dangerously near to a completion stage which could have reversed the war’s outcome."

Former Polish military journalist Igor Witkowski described German wartime research as "the greatest technological leap in the history of our civilization."

He said the Germans ignored Einstein and developed an approach to science based on quantum theories.

"Don’t forget that Einsteinian physics, relativity physics, with its big-picture view of the universe, represented Jewish science to the Nazis. Germany was where quantum mechanics was born. The Germans were looking at gravity [and other matters] from a different perspective to everyone else. Maybe it gave them answers to things that pro-relativity scientists hadn’t even thought of," explained Witkowski, who had unprecedented access to German wartime documents that only recently because available, due to the collapse of communism.

Consider that at the beginning of the war, aircraft were made of canvas stretched over a wooden frame. By 1945, Germany had become the first nation in the world to put into service an all-metal, jet-propelled jet fighter - the Messerschmitt-262.

They also produced the world’s first operational helicopter and vertical takeoff and landing aircraft .

As German scientists worked feverishly to perfect the V-2 rockets and other, more secret weapons, SS chief Heinrich Himmler was taking steps to separate his SS from normal party and state control. "In the spring of 1944 Hitler approved Himmler’s proposal to build an SS-owned industrial concern in order to make the SS permanently independent of the state budget," wrote Nazi armaments minister Albert Speer.

Employing methods later used by the CIA, SS leaders created a number of business fronts and other organizations - many using concentration camp labor - with an eye toward producing revenue to support SS activities. These highly compartmentalized groups headed by young, ambitious SS officers neither required nor desired any connection with Germany’s high-profile leaders. Their purpose was to create an economic base that could continue pursuing Nazi goals long after the defeat of Germany.

Armaments minister Speer conceded that there were weapons development programs that he knew nothing about. He admitted that an SS scheme in 1944 to construct a secret weapons plant requiring 3,500 concentration camp workers had been concealed from him. Speer even hinted at the possibility of secret weapons that "were secretly produced by the SS toward the end of the war and concealed from me."

While the V-2 rocket program began under the aegis of the German Army, and the ME-262 jet fighter under the Luftwaffe, they were ultimately transferred to SS control.

"In short, anything that had shown any real promise as a weapon system - in particular, anything that appeared to represent a quantum leap over the then- state-of-the-art - had ended up under the oversight of the SS," noted Nick Cook, an aviation editor and aerospace consultant to "Jane’s Defence Weekly".

With secret projects in the hands of hardcore SS fanatics, and with factories and research facilities scattered over - and under - the countryside, it is entirely conceivable that weapons far in advance of the V rockets could have been developed without the knowledge of anyone except Himmler and his top lieutenants.

Other notable secret Nazi weapons nearing completion in 1945 included the Messerschmitt-163 Komet and the vertically launched Natter rocket fighters, the jet-powered flying wing Horten Ho-IX and the delta-winged Lippisch DM-1. It has been noted that some of top-secret Nazi weaponry development was moved outside Germany, to such places as Blizna, Poland - the same area where Allied aircrews first encountered the infamous “foo-fighters,” small glowing balls of light that shadowed Allied bombers.

The “foo-fighters” soon caught the attention of the American news media. "The New York Times", on 13 December 1944, reported news authorized by the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force. "Floating Mystery Ball Is New Nazi Air Weapon," read the headline.

The story stated: "Airmen of the American Air Force report that they are encountering silver-colored spheres in the air over German territory. The spheres are encountered either singly or in clusters. Sometimes they are semi- translucent.

"The new device, apparently an air defense weapon, resembles the huge glass balls that adorn Christmas trees. There was no information available as to what holds them up like stars in the sky, what is in them or what their purpose is supposed to be."

According to author Renato Vesco, the “foo-fighters" were actually the Feuerball, or fire ball, which was, "a highly original flying machine... circular and armored, more or less resembling the shell of a tortoise, and was powered by a special turbojet engine, also flat and circular, whose principles of operation... generated a great halo of luminous flames.... Radio-controlled at the moment of takeoff, it then automatically followed enemy aircraft, attracted by their exhaust flames, and approached close enough without collision to wreck their radar gear."

Vesco claimed that the basic principles of the Feuerball were later applied to a "symmetrical circular aircraft" known as the Kugelblitz, or ball lightning, automatic fighter that became an "authentic antecedent of the present- day flying saucers."

He said this innovative craft was destroyed after a "single lucky wartime mission" by retreating SS troops.

Even though the public has been conditioned for more than sixty years to dismiss any notion of flying saucers, or UFOs, the accumulation of evidence available today makes it impossible to reject the reality of such craft out of hand. Obviously, the Nazis were experimenting with new and exotic energy technology. The extraordinary development of the Feuerball may have provided the first public glimpse into the heart of Nazi super-science.

Several writers have produced articles about the Nazi development of flying saucers. British author W. A. Harbinson claimed that he got his ideas after discovering postwar German articles mentioning a former Luftwaffe engineer, Flugkapitän Rudolf Schriever.

According to information gleaned by Harbinson from articles in "Der Spiegel", "Bild am Sonntag", "Luftfahrt International", and other German publications, Schriever claimed to have designed a "flying top" prototype in 1941, which was actually test-flown in June 1942.

In 1944, Schriever said he constructed a larger, jet version of his circular craft, with the help of scientists Klaus Habermohl, Otto Miethe, and an Italian, Dr. Giuseppe Belluzzo.

Drawings of this saucer were published in the 1959 British book "German Secret Weapons of the Second World War and Their Later Development", by Major Rudolf Lusar, an engineer who worked in the German Reichs-Patent Office and had access to many original plans and documents. Lusar described the saucer as a ring of separate disks carrying adjustable jets rotating around a fixed cockpit. The craft could fly vertically or horizontally, depending on the positioning of the jets.

Rudolf Lusar's book  contains less than two pages of text in the section headed 'Flying Saucers', but its influence has been quite remarkable. Here, in full, is the text of that brief section:

"Flying saucers have been whirling round the world since 1947, suddenly turning up here and there, soaring in and darting off again at unprecedented speed with flames encircling the rim of the saucer's disc. They have been located by radar, pursued by fighters and yet nobody has so far succeeded in establishing the existence of such a 'flying saucer' or managed to ram or shoot one down. The public, even the experts, are perplexed by an ostensible mystery or a technical miracle. But slowly the truth is coming out that even during the war German research workers and scientists made the first moves in the direction of these ''flying saucers''. They built and tested such near-miraculous contraptions. Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called "flying discs", were undertaken in 1941. The designs for these ''flying discs'' were drawn up by the German experts Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe, and the Italian Bellonzo.

"Habermohl and Schriever chose a wide-surface ring which rotated round a fixed, cupola-shaped cockpit. The ring consisted of adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off' or horizontal flight. respectively. Miethe developed a discus-shaped plate of a diameter of 42m in which adjustable jets were inserted. Schriever and Habermohl, who worked in Prague, took off with the first "flying disc'' on 14 February 1945. Within three minutes they climbed to an altitude of I2,400m and reached a speed of 2,000 km/h in horizontal flight. It was intended ultimately to achieve speeds of 4,000 km/h.

"Extensive preliminary tests and research were necessary before construction could be started. Because of the great speed and the extraordinary heat stress, special heat-resisting materials had to be found. The development, which cost millions, was almost completed at the end of the war. The then existing models were destroyed but the plant in Breslau where Miethe worked fell into the hands of the Russians who took all the material and the experts to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is being successfully continued.

"Schriever escaped from
Prague in time; Habermohl, however, is probably in the Soviet Union, as nothing is known of his fate. The former designer Miethe is in the United States and, as far as is known, is building "flying saucers" for the United States and Canada at the A. V. Roe works. Years ago, the U.S. Air Force received orders not to fire at "flying saucers". This is an indication of the existence of American "flying saucers" which must not be endangered. The flying shapes so far observed are stated to have diameters of 16, 42, 45 and 75 m respectively and to reach speeds of up to 7,000 km/h. In 1952 "flying saucers" were definitely established over Korea and Press reports said they were seen also during the NATO manoeuvres in Alsace in the autumn of 1954. It can no longer be disputed that "flying saucers" exist. But the fact that their existence is still being denied, particularly in America, because United States developments have not progressed far enough to match the Soviet Union's, gives food for thought. There also seems some hesitation to recognise that these novel "flying saucers" are far superior to conventional aircraft - including modern turbo-jet machines - that they surpass their flying performance, load capacity and maneouvrability and thereby make them obsolete."

Schriever later said the Allied advance into Germany put an end to his "flying disc" experiments, with all equipment and designs lost or destroyed. However, a Georg Klein told the postwar German press that he had witnessed the Schriever disc, or something like it, test-flown in February 1945.

Schriever reportedly died in the late 1950s and, according to a 1975 issue of "Luftfahrt International", notes and sketches related to a large flying saucer were found in his effects. The periodical also stated that Schriever maintained until his death that his original saucer concept must have been made operational prior to war’s end.

This possibility is acknowledged by British author Brian Ford, who wrote, "There are supposed to have been 'flying saucers' too, which were near the final stages of development, and indeed it may be that some progress was made toward the construction of small, disc-like aircraft, but the results were destroyed, apparently before they fell into enemy hands."

These accounts would seem to be corroborated by a CIA report dated 27 May 1954. As reported in Nick Redfern’s 1998 book, "The FBI Files: The FBI’s UFO Top Secrets Exposed", the document stated, "A German newspaper (not further identified) recently published an interview with Georg Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of 'flying saucers' carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted ‘flying saucer’ took off and reached a speed of 1,300 miles per hour within three minutes.

"The experiments resulted in three designs - one designed by Miethe was a disk- shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another, designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the center of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the ‘flying saucer’ project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants.

"Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the USA at present."

Another candidate for inventor of a German UFO is the Austrian scientist Victor Schauberger, who, after being kidnapped by the Nazis, reportedly designed a number of "flying discs" in 1940, using a flameless and smokeless form of electromagnetic propulsion called “diamagnetism.”

Schauberger reportedly worked for the U.S. government for a short time after the war before dying of natural causes. Prior to his death, he was quoted as saying, "They took everything from me. Everything." No one knows for certain if he meant the Nazis or the Allies.

That someone was flying highly unconventional disc-shaped objects shortly after World War II was made plain by the now-public comments of U.S. Army Lieutenant General Nathan Twining, then in charge of the Army Air Forces’ Air Material Command (AMC).

In mid-1947, two years after the war ended, “flying saucers” were being reported both in Europe and America. General Twining wrote that the "phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious."

He went on to describe attributes of such discs as having, "extreme rates of climb, maneuverability (particularly in roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar, lend[ing] belief to the possibility that some of the objects are controlled either manually, automatically or remotely."

Allowing a small glimpse into the reality of such radical technology, Twining concluded, "It is possible within the present U.S. knowledge -  provided extensive detailed development is undertaken - to construct a piloted aircraft which has the general description of the object [described above] which would be capable of an approximate range of 7,000 miles at subsonic speeds."

If technical knowledge in the 1940s was advanced enough to construct a workable flying saucer, the public was never to hear about it. Beginning in the late 1940s, a national security "lid" was placed on the subject.

But it is fascinating to recall that one of the first and best documented cases of mysterious abductions took place in September 1961, when Betty and Barney Hill under hypnosis recalled being taken aboard a circular craft manned by men in black uniforms.

Barney Hill described the leader as a "German Nazi" wearing a shiny black jacket, scarf, and cap.

Before anyone rushes out to proclaim that all UFOs are really secret Nazi technology, serious attention should be given to the wealth of public literature that clearly indicates that while some saucers, especially in the years following World War II, may indeed have been Nazi test vehicles, any objective review of the material suggests the presence of some unconventional source as well.

Another amazing - and chilling - aspect of Nazi technology involved their development of nuclear weapons. Researcher and author Farrell concluded from new material released from the former East Germany that the Nazis were much closer to developing an atomic bomb than previously accepted by postwar writers.

He characterized the idea that the Germans had neither the talent nor the capability to construct an operational atomic bomb - recall the well-known story of the destruction of the heavy-water plant in Norway by commandos - an "Allied Legend" designed to distract the public from a horrible reality.

"[A]ll the evidence points to the conclusion that there was a large, very well-funded, and very secret German isotope- enrichment program during the war, a program successfully disguised during the war by the Nazis and covered up after the war by the Allied Legend," wrote Farrell, after concluding that the conventional story that "the German failure to obtain the atom bomb because they never had a functioning reactor is simply utter scientific nonsense because a reactor is needed only if one wants to produce plutonium. It is an unneeded, and expensive, development, if one only wants to make a uranium A-bomb."

Plus, there is the cryptic remark made by Kurt Diebner, a physicist involved with the Nazi atomic bomb project.

Surreptitiously recorded by British intelligence during postwar internment at Farm Hall, England, Diebner mentioned a "photochemical process" to enrich uranium bypassing the need for a centrifuge. Since no modern researcher understands what process was referred to by Diebner, this may mean that the Nazis discovered a method of isotope separation and uranium enrichment that even now remains classified.

Adding to the idea that the Nazis already had perfected a method of enriching uranium are the words of nuclear scientist Karl Wirtz, who was also secretly taped at Farm Hall.

Upon learning of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Otto Hahn, who discovered atomic fission, commented, "They can only have done that if they have uranium isotope separation." 

To which Wirtz agreed by responding, "They have it too," a clear indication that he knew of a German separation process.

Farrell noted, "Thus, there is sufficient reason, due to the science of bomb-making and the political and military realities of the war after America’s entry, that the Germans took the decision to develop only a uranium bomb, since that afforded the best, most direct, and technologically least complicated route to acquisition of a bomb."

Based on his research, Farrell wrote, "American progress in the plutonium bomb, from the moment [physicist Enrico] Fermi successfully completed and tested a functioning reactor in the squash court at the University of Chicago, appeared to be running fairly smoothly, until fairly late in the war, when it was discovered that in order to make a bomb from plutonium, the critical mass would have to be assembled much faster than any existing Allied fuse technologies could accomplish.

"Moreover, there was so little margin of error, since the fuses in an implosion device would have to fire as close to simultaneously as possible, that Allied engineers began to despair of making a plutonium bomb work.... I believe a strong prima facie case has been outlined that Nazi Germany developed and successfully tested, and perhaps used, a uranium atom bomb before the end of World War II,” Farrell concluded.

Farrell was not alone in this assessment. In 2005, Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch, in a book titled "Hitlers Bombe", claimed that the Nazis indeed tested nuclear weapons on Rügen Island near Ohrdruf, Thuringia, site of a subsidiary concentration camp to the infamous Buchenwald. Reportedly, many prisoners were killed during these tests, which were conducted under the supervision of the SS.  He produced Kremlin archives to prove that Soviet intelligence reported the Ohrdruf tests to Stalin.   Karlsh also produced the account of then still living witness Claere Werner custodian in 1945 of Wachtel Castle near Arnstadt.

Hitler 'created' an Atom Bomb that could be carried on a Flying Saucer
Nazi Gemany may have developed an atomic bomb which could have been carried by a 'flying saucer' in the dying days of the Second World War
By Jake Burman
Daily Express
31 July

Hitler was believed to be close to creating an atom bomb which would have changed the outcome of WW2

A German TV documentary revealed the Nazis were incredibly close to developing the weapon of mass destruction.

According to the documentary, called 'The Search for Hitler’s Atom Bomb’, the research was so advanced that Russian prisoners of war were sacrificed to test the bomb's efficiency.

The documentary, which aired on the ZDF channel, quotes sealed records from Russia and the US which suggest that frenzied research brought the Third Reich within inches of producing the bomb.

It quotes Nazi scientists' interrogation reports, eyewitness accounts and records left behind by researchers.

Historian Matthia Uhl claims the race to create the A-bomb intensified in the last year of the war - with Germany being defeated on every front.

S.S. Gneral Hans Kammler who was in charge of the race for nuclear fission, who was one of a handful of Nazi officials who answered only to Hitler, was handed 175,000 concentration camp inmates for slave labour in the V-weapons factories, tank production lines and for building secret Bunkers.

One of Kammler's main projects was the Jonas Valley in Thuringia, east Germany, the alleged site of the Nazi's nuclear and space programmes.

One test was reportedly conducted at the beginning of March 1945.

The US has placed a 100-year secrecy order on the files concerning the valley and what went on in the secret tunnels the Nazis carved into it.

Conspiracy theorists believe the Americans found two things in the tunnels - a primitive nuclear bomb and a flying saucer designed to deliver it.

In the later stages of the war there were apparent sightings of flying saucers - dubbed "foo fighters".

ZDF quoted Soviet documents from Russian military intelligence agents who spoke of two nuclear tests in Thuringia.

They said: “The Germans are in the throes of making and testing a new secret weapon, which has a large destructive force.

“The available bomb has a diameter of 1.5 meters. It consists of interlocking hollow balls.”

Another Russian report said: “Communicated by our reliable source from Germany: the Germans have conducted two explosions in Thuringia with great force.”

One report added: “[Russian prisoners of war] in the centre of the explosion were killed and often no trace remained of them. Also a strong radioactive effect has been observed".

However the documentary was unable to find where the uranium the scientists would have needed came from - admitting many pieces of the story are still a mystery.

Karlsch’s primary evidence consists of "vouchers" for "tests" and a patent for a plutonium weapon dated 1941. He also claimed to have found traces of radioactivity in soil from the site.

A 1943 OSS report found in the Woods Memorandum to US secretary of State Cordell Hull also refers to a series of nuclear tests in the Schwabian Alps near Bisingen in July 1943. These tests are corroborated by seismic records.

Although Nazi armaments minister Speer was questioned about a mysterious blast at Ohrdruf during the Nuremberg war crimes trials, no significant information on a nuclear test was found, either because it never happened or because a postwar cover-up was quite successful.

Mainstream historians, at the mercy of carefully concocted cover stories in both Germany and the USA, have remained skeptical that Nazi scientists could have advanced their nuclear knowledge to the point of actual testing.

However, evidence that the Nazis were planning a nuclear strike near the end of the war came from varied sources, including a news article in the "Washington Post" dated 29 June 1945, which reported on an amazing find by Allied troops in Norway: "R.A.F. [Royal Air Force] officers said today that the Germans had nearly completed preparations for bombing New York from a 'colossal air field' near Oslo when the war ended.

"Forty giant bombers with a 7,000-mile range were found on this base - 'the largest Luftwaffe field I have ever seen,' one officer said.

"They were a new type bomber developed by Heinkel. They now are being dismantled for study. German ground crews said the planes were held in readiness for a mission to New York."

It should also be noted that the Nazis had two Junkers-390, a massive six-engine modification of the Junkers-290, known to have made flights to Japanese bases in Manchuria.

Claims that only one Ju-390 flew arise from the postwar testimony of two key people. At a hearing before the British, on 26 September 1945, Professor Heinrich Hertel, chief designer and technical director for Junkers Aircraft and Motor Works, stated the second Ju 390 prototype was neither completed, nor had it been flown. The same thing was said by the aircraft's Chief Test Pilot Capt Hans Joachim Pancherz. That however may have just been splitting hairs. Following the first prototype, RLM recommended to Milch dispensing with further prototypes and commencing production for the Ju 390-A series.

"In October 1943 a suggestion of Major Hoffmann was acted upon to commence a series production of the Ju 390 without having prototypes beforehand. The first aircraft of the series would be used for the usual tests. Milch then ordered the Ju 390 [into] series production without prototypes after Rechlin said they had no objections. This machine was demonstrated to Göring on 5 November 1943, and trials continued at Prague-Rusin..."

-- Manfred Griehl: "Luftwaffe over America", (Greenhill Books 2005) which was researched by the author in German archival material

Technically Hertel and Pancherz may not have been lying when they said the second prototype was not built. The British simply did not ask the right question. 

Documents found in the Junkers factory, dated 6 October 1944, relating to licensed construction manufacturing in Czechoslovakia clearly indicate other components which do not belong to the Ju 390 V-1

In late 1944, one JU-390 was flown from a base in Bordeaux, France, to within twelve miles of New York City, snapped photographs of the skyline, and returned - a nonstop flight of thirty-two hours.

What weapon was to be transported by these massive bombers? After the war, authorities discovered a feasibility study by the German Luftwaffe detailing the blast effects of an atomic bomb over New York’s Manhattan Island. The Nazi study was based on an atomic bomb in the fifteen-to seventeen-kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

If Nazi Germany had a nuclear weapon, they surely must have tested it, and a collection of disparate sources seems to indicate this was accomplished.

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in a “Political Testament” written shortly before his death at the hands of partisans in April 1945, stated, "The wonder weapons are the hope. It is laughable and senseless for us to threaten at this moment, without a basis in reality for these threats. The well-known mass destruction bombs are nearly ready. In only a few days, with the utmost meticulous intelligence, Hitler will probably execute this fearful blow, because he will have full confidence.... It appears there are three bombs - and each has an astonishing operation. The construction of each is fearfully complex and of a lengthy time of completion."

Mussolini’s mention of three bombs is intriguing because of a statement of a former Russian military translator who served on the staff of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, the officer who took Japan’s surrender to the Soviet Union in 1945.

As reported by the German magazine "Der Spiegel" in 1992, Piotr Titarenko had written a letter to the Communist Party Central Committee, in which he stated that  three atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. One of these, dropped on Nagasaki prior to the blast of 9 August 1945, failed to detonate and subsequently was given to the Soviet Union by Japanese officials.

If Titarenko’s account is accurate, this would mean that America had three atomic bombs on hand in the summer of 1945. Yet, a report to Manhattan Project leader Robert Oppenheimer just days after President Roosevelt died on 12 April 1945, stated that not enough enriched uranium existed to create a viable critical mass for even one atomic bomb.

News stories in Britain point to a possible Nazi atomic bomb test in 1944.

An 11 August 1945, article in London’s "Daily Telegraph" reported, "Britain prepared for the possibility of an atomic bomb attack on this country by Germany in August 1944. It can now be disclosed that details of the expected effect of such a bomb were revealed in a highly secret memorandum which was sent that summer to the chiefs of Scotland Yard, chief constables of provincial forces and senior officials of the defense services."

Another odd story also was published in England’s "Daily Mail" on 14 October 1944, under the headline "Berlin Is ‘Silent’ 60 Hours, Still No Phones."

The story, filed by a correspondent from Stockholm, stated that all telephone service in Berlin had been interrupted for three days with "no explanation for the hold-up, which has lasted longer than on any previous occasion.

The story ended by saying, "It is pointed out, moreover, in responsible quarters that if the stoppage were purely the technical result of bomb damage, as the Germans claimed, it should have been repaired by now."

A modern readership would know that such disruption can be caused by the electromagnetic pulse associated with a nuclear detonation.

Other intriguing hints of a German atomic test came in the form of three separate intelligence reports. A once-classified U.S. military intelligence report dated 19 August 1945, and titled “Investigations, Research, Developments and Practical Use of the German Atomic Bomb” details the experience of a German pilot named Hans Zinsser, a Flak rocket expert, while piloting a Heinkel bomber over northern Germany. Note that his experience coincides with the dates of the Berlin telephone blackout.

Zinsser reported: "At the beginning of October 1944, I flew from Ludwigslust (south of Lübeck) about 12 to 15 km from an atomic bomb test station, when I noticed a strong, bright illumination of the whole atmosphere, lasting about 2 seconds.

"The clearly visible pressure wave escaped the approaching and following cloud formed by the explosion. This wave had a diameter of about 1 km when it became visible and the color of the cloud changed frequently.... Personal observations of the colors of the explosion cloud found an almost blue-violet shade.

"During this manifestation reddish-colored rims were to be seen, changing to a dirty-like shade in very rapid succession. The combustion was lightly felt from my observation plane in the form of pulling and pushing.... About an hour later... I passed through the almost complete overcast (between 3,000 and 4,000 meter altitude). A cloud shaped like a mushroom with turbulent billowing sections (at about 7,000 meter altitude) stood, without any seeming connections, over the spot where the explosion took place.

"Strong electrical disturbances and the impossibility to continue radio communications turned up. Because of the P-38s operating in the area Wittenberg-Mersburg I had to turn to the north but observed a better visibility at the bottom of the cloud where the explosion occured [sic]."

It does not seem very clear why these experiments took place in such crowded areas.

Then there was the report of an Italian officer, Luigi Romersa, who claimed to have been present at the testing of a "disintegration bomb" on the night of 11/12 October 1944. Romersa was granted a special pass from Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or German High Command, to visit the test site on the island of Rügen.

Romersa was a special envoy from Mussolini, who had wanted more information since Hitler had mentioned to him, "a bomb with a force which will surprise the whole world."

According to Romersa, he and others were told the "disintegration bomb" was 'the most powerful explosive that has yet been developed" and that "nothing can withstand it."

They were sent to a Bunker about a mile from the actual test site.

He also was warned against radioactivity.

"Around 4 P.M., in the twilight, shadows appeared, running toward our bunker," recalled Romersa.

"They were soldiers and they had on a strange type of ‘diving suit.’ They entered and quickly shut the door. ‘Everything is kaput,’ one of them said as he removed his protective clothing. We also eventually had to put on white, coarse, fibrous cloaks. I cannot say what the material was made of, but I had the impression that it could have been asbestos. The headgear has a piece of Glimmerglas [mica glass?] in front of the eyes."

After making their way to the test site proper, Romersa stated, "The houses that I had seen only an hour earlier had disappeared, broken into little pebbles of debris. As we drew nearer [to the point of explosion], the more fearsome was the devastation. The grass had the same color as leather. The few trees that still stood upright had no more leaves."

Romersa’s credibility is supported by the fact that he eventually came to the United States, where he was granted a high-security clearance.

A third report dated 14 December 1944, but only declassified by the National Security Agency in 1978, is titled "Reports on the Atom-splitting Bomb."

-- Japanese Diplomatic signal intercept 12 December 1944 (Magic decrypt) Trans 14 Dec 44 (3020-B Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 December 1944 (War Department), National Archives, RG 457, SRA 14628-32, declassified 1 October 1978 (SRA = Japanese Attache)     

It reads: "
This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom- splitting bomb. It is a fact that in June of 1943, the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk.

"Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs (each round up to 5 kilograms) sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.

"The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant Colonel... Kenji, adviser to the attaché in Hungary and formerly... in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place:  'All the men and the horses [within radius of] the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated. Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia, too, would use poison gas....Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attack by German atom- splitting bombs. The American authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb..."

The Japanese report then goes into a remarkably accurate description of the splitting of the atom, ending with the statement, "[T]he German atom-splitting device is the Neuman disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates an atomic pressure of several tens of thousands of tons per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy.... That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy."

Some elements of the Japanese report were obviously in error, such as the confusion over descriptions of a fission versus a fusion bomb and the date of the Kursk offensive, which did not begin until July 5, 1943. Mistakes notwithstanding, it is clear that Japanese intelligence was firmly convinced that the Germans had used a revolutionary type of weapon on the Eastern Front.

But if the Nazis had deployed a tactical nuke or other exotic weapon on the Eastern Front, why would the Soviets have kept such an attack secret? Farrell pointed out that had Nazi Germany used such a weapon, it would most likely have been against the Russians, whom the Nazis considered “subhuman,” in Nazi ideology.

Fully one-half of the 50 million casualties of the war occurred in Russia, and several massive explosions, such as the one that destroyed a section of Sevastopol, have never been fully explained. It was announced that a hundred-foot below-ground ammunition Bunker was destroyed after being struck by a lucky shot from Dora, a 31 1/2- inch German railway gun considered the largest in the world.

Although not the largest calibre gun ever made, or the longest ranged, the 80cm railway gun 'Dora' was the biggest. As far as is known it was used only sparingly, to shell Sevastopol in the Crimea, and later Warsaw. Too large to be transported whole, Dora required several trains to transport it.

Before assembly could begin, and this took several weeks to accomplish, a second track had to be laid at the chosen firing site. Movable straddle cranes also had to be assembled, these were on their own additional rails. The two 20 axle halves of the chassis were shunted onto the double tracks side by side, and coupled together. Only then could the cranes start putting the really big bits on.

Once assembled Dora must have been an awesome sight, all one thousand three hundred and fifty tons of it. The barrel alone weighed 100 tons, the breech was also another 100 tons. It could fling a 7 ton shell about 45 km. As a piece of static siege artillery there was no question of its effect, but even its creators, Krupp, admitted while it was a valuable research tool, as a practical weapon of war it was useless.

Such attacks were never reported by Soviet leader Josef Stalin, due to the fear of losing control over a panicked and war-weary Russian population. The use of a super-weapon on the Eastern Front also might explain why more is not known about this issue. Accurate war news from Russia was extremely hard to come by during the war and grew more so during the Cold War.

To make public the use of a nuclear or unconventional weapon "would have been a propaganda disaster for Stalin’s government," noted Farrell.

"Faced with an enemy of superior tactical and operational competence in conventional arms, the Red Army often had to resort to threats of execution against its own soldiers just to maintain order and discipline in its ranks and prevent mass desertion. Acknowledgment of the existence and use of such weapons by the mortal enemy of Communist Russia could conceivably have ruined Russian morale and cost Stalin the war, and perhaps even toppled his government."

If the Nazis had operational atomic weapons, is it possible they were transferred to the United States?

Documents exist showing that America’s secret development of the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project, could not have produced enough enriched uranium to make a bomb by mid-1945. Since only a plutonium bomb was tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, researchers have wondered where America acquired the uranium bombs dropped on Japan less than a month later.

Some have speculated that the United States used a Nazi bomb or used Nazi enriched uranium to manufacture its bombs.

The Trinity bomb exploded near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945, was a plutonium bomb. Why then would the United States first drop the Little Boy, an untested uranium bomb, on Japan on 6 August 1945?

"A rational explanation is [that] ‘Little Boy’ was not tested by the Americans because... [t]he Americans did not need to test it, because its German designers already had," surmised Farrell. This idea is supported by the statement of German authors Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner that J. Robert Oppenheimer, the "father of the atomic bomb," maintained that the bomb dropped on Japan was of “German provenance."

Of course, this idea would fly in the face of the long- accepted Allied Legend that Germany simply couldn’t manufacture an atomic bomb by the war’s end.

Where could the Nazis have obtained enriched uranium for such a bomb?

One potential source was the secure underground laboratory of Baron Manfred von Ardenne, built in Lichterfelde outside Berlin, which contained a 2-million-volt electrostatic generator and a cyclotron. In 1941, von Ardenne, along with Fritz Houtermans, had calculated the critical mass needed to create U-235. It should be noted that Hitler visited the laboratory toward the end of the war, at a time when he spoke enthusiastically of a new wonder weapon that would turn the tide in Germany’s favor.

Some researchers contend that the Nazi development of a uranium bomb was kept secret because the work was not part of the German military-industrial system but hidden within the German Postal Service.

According to Carter Plymton Hydrick, author of a well-documented book "Critical Mass - How Nazi Germany Surrendered Enriched Uranium for the United States’ Atomic Bomb", "[A]ll of Ardenne’s facilities... were provided by and ongoing funding made available through, the patronage of one man, Reichminister of Post and a member of the Reich President’s Research Council on Nuclear Affairs, Wilhelm Ohnesorge."

Reportedly, Hitler once remarked that while his party and military leadership worried about how to win the war, it was his postal minister who brought him the solution.

Farrell explained that the Reichspost was, "awash with money, and could therefore have provided some of the massive funding necessary to the [uranium enrichment] project, a true 'black budget' operation in every sense."

Another source may have been a giant synthetic-rubber plant built by I.G. Farben next to Auschwitz, the notorious death camp. The site was chosen for its proximity to transportation hubs, both rail lines and rivers, as well as the nearby supply of slave labor found at the Auschwitz camp. This site probably was also selected with the idea that the Allies would not bomb a concentration camp, a supposition that proved correct.

Yet, despite the facts - established during the Nuremberg trials - that more than $2 billion in today’s dollars were spent; that 300,000 slave laborers had been used in both the construction and operation of this plant; and that it had consumed more electricity than Berlin, not one pound of Buna, or synthetic rubber, was ever produced.

So, what was produced?

"The facility has all of the characteristics of a uranium enrichment plant," noted Hydrick, adding, 'the various components of the German atomic bomb efforts could have been implemented with a high degree of secrecy, even from other high-level Nazis, given Bormann’s close-knit relationships with Ohnesorge; Schmitz, who was chief of I.G. Farben; [Rudolf] Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz; and Heinrich Müller, who, among his many other duties as head of the Gestapo, oversaw the supplying of forced laborers to Auschwitz."

Bormann 's Special Evacuation Command and the Link to the Kammlerstab 

"The traditional history denies, however, that the uranium on board U-234 was enriched and therefore easily usable in an atomic bomb. The accepted theory asserts there is no evidence that the uranium stocks of U-234 were transferred into the Manhattan Project... And the traditional history asserts that the bomb components on board (the) U-234 arrived too late to be included in the atomic bombs that were dropped on Jepan.

"The documentation indicates quite differently on all accounts".

-- Carter Hydrick

On 16 April 1945 the Type XB submarine U-234 departed Kristiansand, Norway for Japan direct. She had loaded at Kiel in January and February, and besides a strategic cargo in the region of 260 tonnes carried ten German and two Japanese passengers, all of whom were specialists in the military field or scientists.

It surfaced briefly somewhere in the mid Atlantic at a pivotal moment in its history -- 10 May 1945 -- to receive radio messages and find out what was happening in the European war.

The radio message, issued under the auspices of Admiral Karl Dönitz, former German U-boat chief elevated to supreme commander after the death of Adolf Hitler, praised all U-boat crews for "fighting like lions" for more than six years and then informed them that the enemy's material superiority had driven Germany to defeat.

"We proudly remember our fallen comrades," Dönitz consoled. "Long live Germany!" He ordered surrender.

On 17 May 1945, Kptlt. Fehler decided to surrender his submarine to the US Navy, and arrived two days later at Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire.

What is principally of interest is the cargo, and in particular ten cases of "uranium oxide" of 560 kilograms weight, and several items which were not included on the Unloading Manifest.

The Unloading Manifest (US NAT Arch, College Park MD, Box RG38, Box 13, Document OP-20-3-G1-A (Unloading Manifest) dated 24 May 1945) is a falsified document purporting to show the entire cargo aboard U-234. The true Manifests, both American and German, have never been declassified. In the normal course of events, a Manifest upon declassification would bear the censor's deletions where it was intended that certain items should not be displayed. The USN alleged Unloading Manifest is clean of any deletions and purports to be the true Unloading Manifest. From a declassified cable, it is evident that 80 cases of Uranium Powder have been omitted, as was also, from the statements of the U-boat crew members and Kptlt. Fehler, a two-seater Me 262 bomber aircraft brought from Rechlin and stowed in its component parts.

Carter Hydrick in "Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age", theorized that it was none other than Martin Bormann who arranged the surrender of the U-234 and its precious cargo of enriched uranium, infrared proximity fuses, heavy water, and possibly even atom bomb designs or an actual functioning atom bomb to the United States.

[It should be noted that Hydrick does not maintain that the Nazis were successful in building and successfully testing an atom bomb during the war, much less of trying to transport blueprints or a functioning model to the Japanese in the U-234]

Recent research by Nick Cook would tend to corroborate Bormann's role in, and therefore probable accurate knowledge of, the full scope and extent of Kammler's secret black projects empire. Bormann's position as controller of Nazi Party finances as well as of Hitler 's estate would have given him control over yet another source of funding for these projects, a source completely independent of the state.

It is in this total context both of Carter Hydrick's meticulous research, as well as of Bormann's own plans for Nazi survival, that we may place Bormann's 1945 establishment of a special SS evacuation Kommando, an act that placed jurisdiction over the Ju 290 four engine and Ju 390 six engine heavy-lift ultra long range air transport of Luftwaffe Kampfgeschwader 200 under the direct control of none other than SS General Hans Kammler. The intention is clear: as much of the actual research files and equipment of the Kammlerstab as could be evacuated from Germany for destinations unknown was to be handled by Kammler personally. This special evacuation command held these aircraft in readiness near Lower Silesia in late 1945. By this point, Kammler's power, backed by the Reichsleiter himself, was so great that he could refuse a request by Reichsführer SS Himmler for the use of one of these aircraft.

Kammler, "with such aircraft at his disposal" would have been able to fly a large cargo of "documents, personnel and technology pretty much anywhere" that he wanted to. "Spain, South America - Argentina even -would have represented no problem to such a long-range platform". Cook himself quips, "What was the point of chasing Kammler, if he'd already shipped everything out?"

This revelation, coming late in the story of research into "Nazi Secret Weapons and the Nazi UFO Legend" by Joseph P. Farrellgives a clear indication that more than just money, bullion, gems, art treasures or personnel were involved in Bormann's survival plan. Clearly, Bormann meant to preserve and continue the research already under way in the Reich by transplanting the technology and continuing its development elsewhere.

If Carter Hydrick is correct that it was Bormann's intention to surrender the bulk of this technology to the United States then this puts Himmler's last ditch and clumsy efforts to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies via Sweden into a new light. Himmler was perhaps offering them the vast cache of secrets he thought he controlled through Kammler's "think tank." It is very possible that the American intelligence community already knew of this treasure trove via their SS contacts through Allen Dulles and SS General Wolff, and had made "other arrangements" that included neither Himmler nor the British.

Thus, by the time of Kammler's refusal to his SS boss to allow him the use of a Ju 290 or Ju 390, effective control and disposition of the SS black projects had slipped from Himmler's hands and into Bormann's. Himmler could neither surrender nor even barter for his life, because he had nothing left with which to bargain. Kammler, and Bormann, however, had a great deal to offer the Americans in exchange for their lives.

According to Nick Cook, Operation Paperclip, the covert project to bring former Nazi scientists and engineers to the United States to work on America's own aerospace and military black projects after the war, was the primary beneficiary of the Kammlerstab's think tank secrets, blueprints, and patents.

"The state within a state had been transported four thousand miles to the west and somehow, I just knew, Kammler had come with it. The intuitive feeling I'd experienced in all these years in obscure corners of the US aerospace and defence industry had suddenly acquired a face."

A theory has been offered that, late in the war, certain Nazis arranged the transfer of enriched uranium to the United States in exchange for immunity from prosecution. At the heart of this transfer theory lies the saga of a Nazi submarine - the U-234.

Unterseeboot-234 was originally designed as a mine-layer but was converted to a cargo carrier prior to its only mission into enemy waters: the last German shipment to its ally, Japan. It sailed from Kiel in March 1945, with a most unusual cargo consisting of several high-level German officials, including Dr. Heinz Schlicke, the inventor of fuses for atomic bombs, and two Japanese officers - Air Force Colonel Genzo Shosi and Navy Captain Hideo Tomonaga.

Also listed on the boat’s manifest of 240 metric tons of cargo were two dismantled ME-262 jet fighters, ten gold-lined cylinders containing 560 kilograms of uranium oxide, wooden barrels of “water,” and infrared proximity fuses.

On 14 May 1945, six days after the German surrender, the U-234 was intercepted by the USS Sutton and taken into captivity. Oddly enough, the sub had been overflown several times by Allied aircraft but never fired upon. The circumstances implied a preplanned meeting and surrender. Here the mystery began. Who issued the orders for this enemy sub to surrender, and why to the Americans? Upon arrival at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, it appeared that some of the boat’s cargo was missing.

The two Japanese officers, after learning that the ship’s captain planned to surrender, had committed suicide and were buried at sea with full honors. But, suspiciously, the two ME-262s were missing, as well as the uranium oxide. In fact, when the U.S. Navy prepared its own manifest for the U-234, there was no accounting for seventy tons of cargo.

Dr. Velma Hunt, a Colorado environmental scientist, said she uncovered information that the U-boat made a secret stop at South Portland, Maine, sometime between May 14 and May 17, 1945, where the cargo in question could have been unloaded. There has been controversy as to whether this uranium had been enriched enough for use as a weapon.

Cook noted that the gold-lined cylinders indicated the uranium was emitting gamma radiation, which meant the normally harmless uranium oxide had been brought to enrichment through the use of a working nuclear reactor.

"And yet, officially, there had been no nuclear reactor in Germany capable of fulfilling this task," wrote Cook. "[At least] not in Speer’s orbit of operations."

Farrell further explains, "The use of gold-lined cylinders is explainable by the fact that uranium, a highly corrosive metal, is easily contaminated if it comes into contact with other unstable elements. Gold, whose radioactive shielding properties are as great as lead, is also, unlike lead, a highly pure and stable element, and is therefore the element of choice when storing or shipping highly enriched and pure uranium for long periods of time, such as a voyage.

"Thus, the uranium oxide on board the U-234 was highly enriched uranium, and most likely, highly enriched U-235, the last stage, perhaps, before being reduced to weapons grade or to metallization for a bomb (if it was already in weapons grade purity) [emphasis in the original]."

Adding weight to Farrell’s deduction is an anecdote regarding the German crew of the U-234. Some crew members were amused when they saw the Japanese officers bring on board cargo marked "U-235."

They apparently thought their Japanese guests couldn’t even get the number of the boat correct. Some now believe the labels indicated the presence of uranium 235, the only isotope found in nature that has the ability to cause an expanding fission chain reaction - in other words, the element needed for a uranium fission bomb. Uranium that has undergone an extraction process to boost its U-235 proportion is known as enriched uranium.

Wolfgang Hirschfeld, radioman on the U-234, stated the submarine’s orders were "only to sail on the orders of the highest level. Führer HQ." He also revealed after the war that crew members believed Japan had succeeded in testing an atomic weapon before their departure from Germany in March 1945. The U-234 met an inglorious end in November 1947, when it was used as a torpedo target and sunk off Cape Cod.

Hydrick published copies of documents from the National Archives to show a connection between the Manhattan Project and the U-234. One such document is a secret cable from the commander of naval operations directing that a three-man party take possession of the sub’s cargo. In addition to two naval officers was the name of Major John E. Vance with the Army Corps of Engineers, the department of the army under which the Manhattan Project operated.

A few days after the visit by Vance, a manifest of the cargo indicated the uranium was no longer in navy possession.

Furthermore, telephone transcripts between Manhattan intelligence officers about a week later stated a captured shipment of uranium powder was being tested by a person identified only as "Vance."

"That there could have been another 'Vance' who was working with uranium powder - especially 'captured' uranium powder - is improbable," noted Hydrick.

But author Henry Stevens found an even more disturbing cover-up. After receiving a statement from the National Archives denying that any canisters containing fissionable material was onboard the U-234, Stevens, recalling that the submarine had surrendered to the USS Sutton, wrote to the Naval Historical Center at the Washington Navy Yard requesting a cargo manifest from the U-234 in the files of the Sutton.

For a $5 microfiche charge, Stevens received the manifest that was identical to the one from the National Archives except that the uranium oxide canisters were listed. This discrepancy in the manifests can only be explained by someone altering the documents.

A plutonium bomb, such as the one Manhattan scientists were developing, required a critical mass to be achieved within 1/3000th of a second, a speed far exceeding the capabilities of fuses available at that time. According to Farrell, there is evidence to support the idea that the necessary fuses were obtained from U-234 passenger Dr. Schlicke.

A message from the chief of Naval Operations to the authorities in Portsmouth, where the U-234 was taken after its surrender, indicated that Dr. Schlicke along with his fuses were to be taken to Washington accompanied by naval officers. Once there, the doctor was scheduled to present a lecture on his fuses in the presence of a "Mr. Alvarez," apparently meaning Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez, the man who is credited with producing fuses for the plutonium bomb.

Alvarez and his student Lawrence Johnson are credited with designing the exploding-bridgewire detonators for the spherical implosives used in the Trinity bomb test as well as the Nagasaki bomb.

On 3 March 1945, President Roosevelt received an ominous memo from Senator James F. Byrnes, a Democrat from South Carolina and a longtime confidant to the president.

This "Memorandum for the President" stated, "I understand that the expenditures for the Manhattan Project are approaching 2 billion dollars with no definite assurance yet of production.... Even eminent scientists may continue a project rather than concede its failure." 

Byrnes, who went on to become a secretary of state and a Supreme Court justice, was voicing the concern of many that the atom bomb project was foundering and might even prove a failure. Byrnes may have been aware of a letter dated 28 December 1944, in which Eric Jette, chief metallurgist at Los Alamos, expressed reservations over the lack of sufficient amounts of uranium for the atomic bomb.

He wrote, "A study of the shipment of [weapons grade uranium] for the past three months shows the following... : At present rate we will have 10 kilos by February 7 and 15 kilos about May 1."

According to Hydrick, Edward Hammel, a metallurgist who worked at Los Alamos, where enriched uranium was made into material for the atomic bomb, reported that very little enriched uranium was received there until less than a month before the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.

Little Boy, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, carried 64.15 kilograms of enriched uranium, virtually the entire quantity that could have been produced since mid-1944 by the enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, even working around the clock. One explanation for the lack of enriched uranium was that some of this fissionable material had been used to produce plutonium in Enrico Fermi’s breeder reactors at Hanford, Washington.

The mounting pressure on Manhattan Project directors to produce a bomb before the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands must have been terrific. If the submarine’s cargo did indeed include U-235 and Dr. Schlicke’s fuses, its acquisition by the United States solved two pressing problems of the Manhattan atomic bomb project - a lack of sufficient amounts of uranium and adequate fuses.

The American bomb-makers may have been greatly relieved that the two major problems facing the Manhattan Project were solved with the surrender of the U-234.

"The fact that U-234 arrived on American soil carrying 560 kilograms of uranium that was enriched and went on to be used in the bombs that were dropped on Japan can scarcely be argued any longer except by those who refuse to consider the evidence," concluded Hydrick.

While it may remain a controversy whether the acquisition of the U-234 was a fortuitous capture or the planned transfer of technology from Germany to the United States, the evidence strongly indicates the latter.

If additional uranium was obtained from the U-234, this would have provided more than could ever have been produced by the Manhattan Project, and the equivalent of about eight Hiroshima bombs. It also means the German nuclear program was much further advanced than believed by conventional historians. In late July 1945, atomic bomb components -  and perhaps additional German uranium bombs - were delivered to Tinian Island in the Pacific following a secret and rushed voyage from California by the USS Indianapolis.

After delivering its deadly cargo, this Portland-class heavy cruiser suffered the largest single at-sea loss of life in U.S. naval history and became the last American ship sunk in World War II after being torpedoed by a Japanese submarine in the Philippines.

Farrell voiced the suspicion that the Indianapolis may have delivered much more than America’s atomic bomb - it may have carried a German bomb in addition to its cargo of uranium and fuses.

He was supported by Stevens, who wrote that the, "unexploded German atomic bombs fell into the hands of the Americans at the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, two months before the 'first' explosion of an atomic weapon in the New Mexico desert. What a present for the Americans!

"All they did was to put new tail fins on the bombs, repaint them, and drop them on Japan. Naturally, the American scientists involved with the Manhattan Project were given credit."

But, if the Nazis had developed a working atomic bomb, why was it not used as Allied armies closed in on Germany? One answer seems to be that they did not have a reliable delivery system in place.

The Nazis’ V-3, a smooth-bore 150-mm gun dubbed the Centipede, designed to launch large-finned shells into London, along with its multistage A-10 rocket, was still undependable.

Witkowski voiced his suspicions that the fatal flight of Lieutenant Joseph Kennedy, older brother to the future president, might have been an ill-fated attempt to destroy the V-3 complex at Mimoyecques, France. The giant airfield in Norway, home to the massive six-engine bombers, had not yet been completed.

This idea was echoed by Stevens, who became convinced that the Third Reich produced an atomic bomb.

"The Germans did make atomic bombs," he stated emphatically. "Not only did they make atomic bombs, they made uranium as well as plutonium bombs and other atomic weapons which remain somewhat of a mystery. What the Germans could not do, in these dying days of the Third Reich, was to match up one of these nuclear weapons with an effective delivery system. The reasons for this differ with each weapon, individually, and run the [gamut] from mistake to treachery to incompetence."

One thought that must have crossed the minds of Nazi leaders was the total destruction of Germany that would have resulted from the use of a nuclear weapon.

Hitler and the Atom Bomb

An incurable lung disease brought Otto Skorzeny to Heidelberg in 1975 for medical treatment. There, Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Waldemar Schütz were his last comrades, visiting him before his return to Spain eight days before his death. He told them on this occasion about his visit in the Führerhauptquartier in the autumn of 1944, when the Führer was ill and received him at his bed. The Führer told him that day that Germany had not built the atom bomb, because he did not want to take the responsibility for mankind being destroyed by such a "Teufelswerk":

"Do you know Mr Skorzeny, that the energy which will be freed through the splitting of the atom's nucleus and the additional radioactivity from such a bomb might destroy our planet? .... The effects would be dreadful. Even if one could control the radioactivity and could use atom splitting as a weapon the results would be dreadful. When Dr. Todt visited me I read that the energy set free by such a bomb could destroy the whole of Arizona or make as big a crater as the meteor had caused in Siberia. That means that all life within such an area would be destroyed, not only humans but all life. Animals and plants would not be able to live within a radius of 40 km for hundreds of years due to radiation. That would mean an Apocalypse. No land, no group of civilized people could bear the responsibility for such a slaughter. In battle after battle human beings would destroy themselves if such a bomb were used. Only in remote places like Amazonia and the jungles of Sumatra would people have a chance of surviving such a bomb."

The devastation of London or New York would not have materially altered the course of the war in the spring of 1945. And the retaliation of the Allies would have been unimaginable. Further, high-ranking Nazis, such as Hitler’s secretary Martin Bormann, who by war’s end had become the second most powerful man in Nazi Germany, realized the war was lost, and used advanced technology as a bargaining chip with the Western allies.

Hydrick proposed just that intriguing possibility: that the U-234 was purposely handed over to U.S. authorities on the order of Bormann in exchange for immunity as part of a covert plan for the continuation of Nazi research.

Although there was criticism over Hydrick’s technical descriptions of both the atomic bomb and its detonators, his mass of documentation concerning the transfer of nuclear technology from Germany to America is compelling.

Hydrick’s claim is supported by Farrell, who wrote, "I have argued that most likely all of it [extra uranium and even atom bombs] came from Nazi Germany, courtesy of Nazi Party Reichsleiter Bormann and SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler."

But Farrell had an even more horrifying thought about why the Nazis did not drop an atomic bomb. Considering Nazi research into quantum physics and energy manipulation, Farrell speculated that their atomic bombs "were being developed as detonators for something far more destructive." Since only a few scattered plans to Nazi super-science were recovered after the war, the question arises, "What became of their advanced technology?"

There has never been a public answer.

However, the answer to this question may be found by studying the man in charge of Germany’s high-tech weapons programs, Dr. Engineer Hans Kammler.

Until recently, finding reliable information about Kammler and his work has been very difficult, and most biographies and stories are a mix of speculation, meta-fiction and/or conspiracy theory. In 2000, however, a number of documents relating to the last days of World War II in Germany were declassified and authors such as Nick Cook–editor for "Jane’s Defense Weekly" (the world’s leading military affairs journal) and author of "The Hunt for Zero Point" (2002)—have begun to piece together information about Kammler’s life and work in the last days of World War II. Moreover, they have traced the migration and activities of members of the Kammlerstab (Kammler’s staff) after the war to places such as Lockheed/Martin, Bell Labs, General Dynamics, and Boeing. Thus, according to Cook, although Kammler himself disappeared without a trace on 18 April 1945, technical information about secret weapons projects that he had gathered and hidden during the last days of the war began to reappear at various defense contracting companies in the United States in the 1950’s.

Kammler, whose name has been largely lost to history, may have played a large role in developing and hiding away the technology secrets of Hitler’s Third Reich. Kammler did not have higher purposes in mind when he set out to develop rockets and energy manipulation. He was searching for new weapons.

Born in 1901, Kammler completed engineering studies at a technical university and began working for the German Air Ministry. Aft er joining the Nazi SS, he managed finances and construction for the SS until 1942, when he became chief of Group C under the Wirtschafts und Verwaltungshauptamt, or the Economic and Administrative Central Offi ce (WVHA) of the SS, one of five key branches of the Black Shirts.

This branch controlled all economic enterprises as well as all concentration and extermination camps. Beginning in 1943, Kammler took control of all “special tasks,” which included “Kammler special construction” - the creation of secret underground facilities as well as exotic weapons programs. His official title was SS Obergruppenführer, or lieutenant general, and he had worked his way up to command the Third Reich’s most precious war time secrets.

In mid-1943, SS chief Heinrich Himmler sent a letter to armaments minister Speer. "With this letter, I inform you that I, as SS Reichsführer... do hereby take charge of the manufacture of the A-4 instrument," it read. The A-4 rocket was later designated by Hitler as the V-2. Himmler then placed Kammler in charge of the project, one of Germany’s most secret high-tech weapons systems.

Due to the devastation brought on by incessant Allied air raids, by the end of 1944, Kammler had taken control of weapons research as well as the construction of underground factories and concentration camps.

"Thus - just a few weeks before the end of the war - he had become commissioner general for all important weapons," wrote Speer, who later bemoaned the fact that Himmler’s SS gradually assumed total control over Germany’s weaponry, production, and research.

In connection with his new responsibilities, Kammler created an SS Sonderkommando, or special command, independent from the normal German military and bureaucracy.

"What Kammler had established was a 'special projects office,' a forerunner of the entity that had been run by the bright young colonels of the USAF’s stealth program in the 1970s and 1980s," noted Cook. It was "a place of vision, where imagination could run free, unfettered by the restraints of accountability. Exactly the kind of place, in fact, you’d expect to find anti-gravity technology, if such an impossible thing existed."


Kammler also had use of computer technology that was only dreamed of in American science fiction stories.

"Dr. Kammler had the benefit of knowledge, hardware and software that was developed by the computing pioneer, Dr. Konrad Zuse," wrote Stevens.

"In spite of everything churned out by the computer industry and 'history' as we know it, Dr. Zuse built the first digital computer in 1938 and the first programmable software language, Plankaikül. He also was instrumental in developing magnetic tape as a computer storage medium. By 1944 the Germans were using computers, the Zuse-built Z-3, to plot the course of ballistic attack by the V-2 at Peenemünde and Nordhausen."

Stevens, who spent more than fifteen years researching the Reich’s most secret technology, including flying saucers, wrote, "By the end of the war a whole new research and production command and control structure had been set up which reduced or replaced the figures we normally think of as running the Third Reich, such as, for instance, Hermann Göring and Albert Speer."

It was Kammler and his Sonderkommando that became the repository for the Reich’s most advanced technology, going far beyond the rockets and flying discs.

But Kammler’s immediate concern was the V-2 rocket program. Kammler worked closely with Wernher von Braun and his superior, Luftwaffe Major General Walter Dornberger.

Von Braun, who had been a member of the SS since 1940, carried the rank of SS Sturmbannführer, or Major.

Alarmed by progress on the V-2 rockets, Britain’s Bomber Command sent 597 bombers on the night of August 16–17, 1943, to raid Peenemünde - Germany’s top-secret rocket facility built on an island at the mouth of the Oder River near the border of Germany and Poland. Because of a navigation “blunder,” much of the underground and well-camouflaged Peenemünde site was left undamaged.

Brian Ford described the results: "Even so, over 800 of the people on the island were killed.... After this, it was realized that some of the facility had better be dispersed throughout Germany; thus the theoretical development facility was moved to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, development went to Nordhausen and Bleicherode, and the main wind-tunnel and ancillary equipment went down to Kochel, some 24 miles south of Munich.

"This was christened Wasserbau Versuchsanstalt Kochelsee - experimental waterworks project - and gave rise to the most thorough research center for long-range rocket development that, at the time, could have been envisioned."

Mary Bennett and David S. Percy, authors of "Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistleblowers", speculated that the British air raid on Peenemünde was designed not to knock out the V-rocket site but to force it to move to safer environs, to ensure the safety of the rocket program.

They showed how the raid bombed the site’s northern peninsula rather than the main facility, due to misplaced target indicators. These authors noted that of the eight hundred personnel who died in the air raid, about half were mostly Russians from the prisoner labor force and the other half were technicians and their families.

After this raid, the irreplaceable Hermann Oberth was transferred to the safety of the Reinsdorf works near Wittenberg, to continue his work.

"Instructions from the highest level, it seems, had been to target personnel and certainly not the V-2 rocket production facilities. It was clearly CRUCIAL that these rockets, plans and parts were spared," they stated.

Someone with high authority wanted this Nazi technology available to them after the war.

Nick Cook also saw the connection between such exotic technology and the mysterious Hans Kammler.

"There was, via the Kammler trail, a mounting body of evidence that the Nazis, in their desperation to win the war, had been experimenting with a form of science the rest of the world have never remotely considered," he wrote.

"And that somewhere in this cauldron of ideas, a new technology had been born; one that was so far ahead of its time it had been suppressed for more than half a century."

One clue to what this revolutionary technology might involve was found in the capture of physicist Walter Gerlach, one of the Nazi scientists brought to the United States after the war. Gerlach has been connected with the German attempts to build an atomic bomb, yet his background indicated even more esoteric knowledge.

In 1921, Gerlach received a Nobel Prize, not for nuclear research but for magnetic spin polarization, dealing with the momentum of electrons of atoms situated in a magnetic field. Such work had little to do with the atomic bomb but much to do with energy manipulation to include antigravity.

In 1931, a paper titled "About Gravitation, Vortices and Waves in Rotating Media" was published by O.C. Hilgenberg, a student of Gerlach, which indicated the focus of Gerlach’s work.

"And yet, after the war, Gerlach, who died in 1979, apparently never returned to these subject matters, nor did he make any references to them; almost as if he had been forbidden to do so," noted Cook.

Interestingly, Gerlach’s wartime work diaries were confiscated by U.S. authorities and remain classified today.

Nazi advanced Research and Development was under the direction of an engineer, Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler who reported to Himmler, making him one level away from the top.

The breadth of technology projects under Kammler was immense; they included not only von Braun’s rocket works at Peenemünde but also secret physics experimentation in Thuringia, in large underground facilities. Near the end of the war, General Patton’s tanks did not head for Berlin but for Ohrdruf in Thuringia, where Auschwitz provided a pool of forced labor for the underground facilities.
One of the secret weapons under development was the atomic bomb. The Establishment history teaches us, and correctly as far as it goes, that Heisenberg and the other highly visible Nobel-prize-winning German physicists did not have the resources in their heavy-water experiments to develop the bomb; Germany, it seems, did not have an adequate industrial base. However, this is a misleading half-truth, for Kammler had developed the Bomb, as reported in an article that appeared in the "Evening Standard" on 7 August 1945, one day after the Little Boy atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, titled "Germans Timed Atomic Bomb for October".

The article reads as follows:
"The Germans had an atom bomb which would have been ready by October. A colossal blast effect was claimed for the German bomb. It was said it would wipe out everything inside a radius of six miles, said B.U.P. to-day. The German atomic plans were uncovered four months ago, when an Allied search party walked into a small silk factory at Celle, north of Hanover. A laboratory of two rooms was buried away in the heart of the factory. A famous research scientist was still at work. He was flown to Britain the same day. This man, with others, had been working on the atom bomb for months. The Nazi Government poured out money on it. Apparently they did not expect immediate results." 

As Joseph P. Farrell recounts in his book, "The Reich of the Black Sun", the "spin" in the article about the bomb being a recent Nazi development is not unexpected, but the extent of damage, some 12 miles in diameter, is beyond the blast damage of a large atomic bomb or a comparable fuel-air bomb which the Nazis also had developed. This is the blast diameter of a hydrogen bomb [It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944].

The "Molecular" Bomb: The Hydrogen Bomb?

"The idea of a "Superbomb" was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943. [German patent 905.847, March 16, 1943, cited in Mayer and Mehner,  "Hitler und die Bombe"] Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions! In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic "punch" but without the side effects!

"In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast. Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm's 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization."

The Fuel-Air Bomb

"At the "small end" of the "bombs of mass destruction scale," however, there are equally baffling, and problematical, assertions regarding Nazi research into the fuel-air bomb, the only known conventional explosive device with enough power to produce the blast and heat effects of a small "tactical" nuclear weapon. It goes without saying that today's "tactical nuke" would have been World War Two's strategic weapon. The first allegations of this type of bomb did not come with Gulf War One in the early 1990s, but with Renato Vesco. And his claims there, as elsewhere, were quietly ignored. But once again, declassification has verified his assertions, and to an extraordinary degree.

Liquid Air bomb

"As the research on the atomic bomb under Graf von Ardenne and others was not proceeding as rapidly as had been hoped in 1944, it was decided to proceed with the development of a liquid air bomb. Experiments using ordinary powdered coal were not at all successful, but extremely good results were obtained from a mixture consisting of 60% finely powdered dry brown coal and 40% liquid air. The technical man responsible for this work was Dr. Mario Zippermayr. The first trial was made on the Doberitz grounds near Berlin using a charge of about 8 kg of powder in a thin tin plate container. The liquid air was poured on to the powder, and the two were mixed together with a long wooden stirrer.

"In an area of radius 500 to 600 meters trees, etc. were all completely destroyed. Thereafter the explosion started to rise and only the tops of the trees were affected, although the intensive explosion covered an area 2 km. in radius. Zippermayr then had the idea that a better effect might be obtained it the powder was spread out in the form of a cloud before the explosion. Trials were made with a paper container impregnated with some waxy substance. A metal cylinder was attached to the lower end of this container and hit the ground first, dispersing the powder. After a short time interval of the order of 1/4 second a small charge in the metal cylinder exploded and ignited the dark funnel shaped dust - liquid air cloud.

"Bombs with charges of 25 and 50 kg. of powder were dropped on the Starbergersee, and photographs of the explosion were taken. Standartenführer Klumm kept a photograph of the result and showed it to Brandt (Himmler's personal adviser). The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to 4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed.

Dr. Mario Zippermayr, an eccentric Austrian inventor working at an experimental establishment at Lofer in the Tyrol, designed and built a series of highly unorthodox anti-aircraft weapons that were observed very closely by the Reichsluftfahrtamt (Office of Aeronautics) in Berlin. Due to the overwhelming numerical air superiority of the Allies every effort was made during the last year of the war to find ways of exploiting any known phenomenon that could bring down the heavy bombers of the USAAF and RAF.

Dr. Zippermayr constructed both a huge Wirbelwind Kanone (Whirlwind Cannon) and Turbulenz Kanone (Vortex Cannon). Both had the same goal - to knock down enemy bombers through clever manipulation of air.

To achieve this, the “Wind Cannon” used a detonation of hydrogen and oxygen to form a highly compressed plug of air that was channeled through a long tube that was bent at an angle and fired like a shell towards enemy aircraft. Impossible as this may seem the Wind Cannon did particularly well on the ground - breaking one inch thick wooden boards from a range of 200 yards! This promising development, however, meant nothing against the Allied bombers that were flying at 20,000 ft! Nevertheless, taken from the Hillersleben Proving Grounds the Wind Cannon was used in defense of a bridge over the Elbe River in 1945. Either there were no aircraft present or the cannon had no effect because it was still intact where it was found.
The Turbulenz Kanone, by comparison, was a large caliber mortar sunk into the ground with fired coal dust and slow burning explosive shells to create an artificial vortex. This also worked well on the ground but again the problem was the same - how to generate a large enough effect to reach the aircraft. Zippermayr did not know if the pressure changes of this device would be sufficient to cause structural damage to an aircraft but the vortex would definitely have an effect on the wing loading as even clear air turbulence had brought down civilian airliners.

Even though Zippermayr could not make either of these weapons any more potent, three outcomes came from his research. The first was the coal dust shell application used with light artillery in the Warsaw Ghetto which involved nothing more than shortening the barrel of the artillery piece and detonating the shells in flight. The improvised weapon was named “Pandora” and was sadly used to deadly effect against the Jewish freedom fighters.

Major Rudolf Lusar, who was involved with German disc development with Schriever’s Flugkreisel Projekt had seen the test footage of both the Wind Cannon and Vortex Cannon in action. He was especially interested in the vortex effect and destructive power of coal dust. Many late-war German fighter projects were to be powered by coal-fired ramjets including Dr. Alexander Lippisch’s Lp-13b and Skoda-Kauba P.14-01.

Major Lusar investigated the coal dust produced vortex as a means of exotic propulsion and considered if it might be applied to one of the Flugscheiben (Flight Discs).
But the second and third outcomes have remained highly-guarded secrets until now

A virtually unknown engineer working on the Flugkreisel Projekt named Gerhard Faulker came up with an idea that could have revolutionized aerial warfare in 1945. He proposed that a giant 100 meter diameter disc be constructed that would not only use Zippermayr coal dust vortex as the main power plant but also to produce a giant fire cloud through the bomber streams by ejecting coal dust explosive propellant through vents in the spinning external ring and then igniting the mixture with ring-tip burners.
Ing. Faulker named his design the Feuersturm (Firestorm). It was proposed in late 1944 but abandoned by the spring of 1945 during the collapse and thus could not be constructed. The design was also nicknamed the “Zyclope” (Cyclops) due to the heavily shielded gyroscopic ball cockpit “eye” that would rotate as the craft literally flew in a widening arc to create the long burning cloud trail that would engulf the enemy bombers.
The Feuersturm is also unique due to its landing gear. The disc would have stood on a central coil stand made up of a series of hydraulically-retractable concentric metal rings with various diameters up to 50 meters. When extended, these formed the huge Turbulenzrohr (vortex pipe) with a huge blast plate/exhaust orifice at the bottom. When the craft went into attack, the entire collapsible hydraulic ring system retracted up into the belly of the disc with the blast plate protecting the bottom of the disc as the vortex effect generated inside the disc now drove the spinning external fire ring. For defense in the VTOL role the Feuersturm would carry four internal launch tubes that would vertically fire coal dust explosive shells. They were to be pre-loaded before launch.

The Feuersturm would have been a point-defense interceptor disc designed to quickly climb vertically to the altitude of the approaching bomber stream and then arc sideways creating an immense burning fire cloud into the path of the bombers.
One disadvantage to this proposal was the desired result. If the Feuersturm worked and all 1,000 bombers plus 500 escorts plunged to the ground on fire, the devastating effect on the locals could have been actually worse than the bombing run!

The Luftwaffe had already proposed a similar idea in 1943 with the development of the world’s first aerosol bombs (known then as vacuum bombs), but none were actually used during the war, probably due to same reason. The British found several SC bomb casings that contained aerosol dispersion canisters, but none were filled in 1945. Only the lone Kugelblitz downed a small group of B-24 bombers with an aerosol ejector gun in one incident to which the Allies accused Germany of using “firedamp” artillery shells.

The third outcome of Zippermayr’s work was even deadlier. The proposed Flak shells containing coal dust powder were to be developed into a super bomb. The SS took Zippermayr’s basic idea and enlarged it into a bomb containing 60% liquid oxygen and 40% fine coal dust powder. This alone would create immense destruction but the SS pushed the idea further by adding a waxy reagent to the mix. When detonated the Superbomb would create a huge explosion with a latter unnatural electrical storm effect at ground level, consuming all oxygen and burning everything alive in a 4.5 km radius - a form of plasma weapon. However, the decision to proceed with this bomb was only granted on 9 March 1945 and was to be constructed at the Jonastal S-3 complex as well as the German discs. The complex was never finished in time and work stopped that same month, even after 25-50 kg test versions of the bomb were detonated in remote locations near the Baltic.

Postwar, Ing. Faulker was not heard of again. He was captured by the Russians in the advance and taken to the USSR. The Russians had considered the development of coal dust explosives too but decided against it and developed their own “thermobaric” weapons which ultimately were tested in Chechnya. No Russian flight disc development seems to have resulted from Faulkner’s capture.

 -- Rob Arndt

"Several important considerations are worth mentioning here. First, note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers' radius. Second, note that Zippermayr has had a similar insight to Dr. Nowak's "molecular bomb": compression of material and then rapid dispersion over an area prior to detonation. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation.

"So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler's representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler's "think tank." But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics."

The Historical Problematic

"German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.

"First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary "public" history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.

"Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of wreaking strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.

"Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by Austria (prior to its annexation by Germany), and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given the allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippermayr test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results, as have been seen, were probably beyond even the Nazis' wildest destructive dreams.

"But what do all these fantastic projects indicate about the nature of German secret weapons research? We may draw a number of conclusions from the evidence presented thus far, and in so doing, speculatively reconstruct the "mission briefing" of the secret weapons think tank being run by Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:

(1) Overlapping technologies were to be developed that could be employed in across a wide variety of various weapons systems (Stealth and RAM technology, etc);
(2) Every available method for the creation of prototypical "smart weapons" was to be pursed (wire, radio, and television-guidance systems), i.e., German technological and engineering competence were to be exploited to the maximum;
(3) This technological competence was to be pursued in (then) unconventional ways and combinations to create not only new weapons, but a new doctrine of warfare;
(4) The first generation of these weapons were then to be extrapolated upon, and second and third generation technology trees and long range goals mapped out;
[5] The ultimate quest was for the attainment of weapons of mass destruction beyond the acquisition of atomic and thermonuclear weapons;
(6) Post-nuclear systems were then to be developed ideally, and initial research on those systems undertaken; and finally, 
(7) Every known theoretical principle of physics was to be pondered and extrapolations for weaponization theorized, and, to the extent possible, experimented upon and utilized.

"In other words, the Kammlerstab's mission brief was to think "outside the box" entirely, even if that meant outside the box of Nazi party ideology, or, when it suited it, inside it. The basis was the will to power, by whatever means possible."

The example of engineer Ott Hilgenberg demonstrates this:
"Dr. Ing. Ott Christoph Hilgenberg was a student of the renowned Nobel laureate Walter Gerlach, whose work in magnetic spin polarization in 1921 had earned him the Nobel Prize. Hilgenberg, however, while within the "mainstream" of physics, was not one to allow his mind to be constrained by conventional concepts, as any glance at his two little known, but quite unconventional and thought-provoking papers will attest.

"In 1931 Hilgenberg published what may best be called an arcane paper entitled "Gravitation, Tromben, und Wellen in bewegten Medien," or "Gravitation, Beats, and Waves in Moving Media." The title itself is quite suggestive, for it is the first indication that, even before the Nazis, and after relativity, at least one serious and respected German physicist is still thinking of the old idea of an aether, but thinking about it in a way quite different from the static aether concepts of the 19th century that led to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, and Sagnac's rotational version of it.
"Under Hilgenberg's influence, Carl Friedrich Krafft took this "vorticular quantum mechanics" one step further, and posited atoms as essentially a geometric or topological construct of the aether that acted as "ether pumps", taking in or giving off energy based on the rotations of the various rings of dynamic aether around them. He developed this notion even further by positing various combinations of vorticular, rotating geometries as the basis for the then known sub-atomic particles. Krafft, whose views were totally eclipsed by war's end with the victory of the Allies - which likewise might be seen as a victory of relativity - was left to self-publish his works in this strange world of "non-linear physics", which were duly and promptly ignored by the more conventionally minded linear physics of relativity and its proponents."
"It is well-known that the Germans had developed jet fighter aircraft by the end of the war. What is lesser known is the technology in advance of jet aircraft".

As Farrell states:
"What the Germans were apparently trying to do was simply build a disk-shaped aircraft, the entire surface of which was both the turbine intake, as well as the lift surface. This was, so to speak, the "Mark I" flying saucer: a standard suction aircraft, albeit, with a very unconventional lift surface, which was one and the same as its fuselage and air intake."
The idea was to suction the boundary layer, a cause of drag and an impediment for supersonic travel. That the Germans were working on flying saucers is in part corroborated by a 1980 article in the German magazine "Neue Presse". It reports that:
"...the German fluidics engineer Heinrich Fleissner... was an engineer, designer and advisor to what he calls a "Flugscheibe" project based at Peenemünde during the war. It is interesting to note that Fleissner's area of expertise, fluidics, is exactly the specialty involved in investigating problems with boundary layer flow. Fleissner reports that the saucer with which he was involved would have been capable of speeds up to 3,000 kilometers per hour within the earth's atmosphere and up to 10,000 kilometers per hour outside the earth's atmosphere. He states that the brains of the developmental people were found in Peenemünde under the tightest secrecy...." 
What is of most interest to us here are three facts. First, that Fleissner worked at Peenemünde on a flying saucer project. Second, that a hint of this design has survived to this day. Third, the surviving design can be linked to photographic evidence of a German saucer, circa World War Two.
Aerospace engineering combines with nuclear and quantum physics in the possible development under Kammler of propulsion which combined electromagnetics with gravity. One of the main goals of physics that has persisted into the 21st century is to find a theoretical means for unifying gravity with the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces (or electronuclear force). There is some evidence that this has already been accomplished covertly - and possibly as far back as in Kammler’s efforts. Nick Cook, former editor of the well-regarded "Jane’s Defence Weekly" magazine set out to find what evidence remained for the development of electrogravitic or magnetogravitic propulsion in Nazi Germany. His search took him to Poland and what was left of a large concrete cradle associated with a device Cook refers to as Kammler’s “Bell”.

From Farrell: 

"The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter. Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks.

"So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed. Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housing below ground in a room bricked and tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine.
"When [Nick] Cook was shown the installation in which the Bell was housed, he was also informed of its high electrical consumption. What was the mysterious "Xerum 525?" When I first read of this substance which had to be stored in lead lined cylinders, I first thought it sounded like a radioactive isotope of mercury, or perhaps some other radioactive material suspended in solution of some sort.

"More recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study the resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields. These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time.
"Close to the Bell's underground testing Bunker the Germans had built a large concrete Henge-like structure, in the pillars of which were high grade steel hooks, an obvious testing frame for what must have been an extremely powerful propulsion device. What happened to the Bell? No one knows. Like Kammler, it goes completely missing at the end of the war, and its scientists, as already stated, were murdered to a man by the SS to keep whatever precious secrets it, and they, had uncovered."
Kammler had extremely wide authority in Germany, not only over rocket development but over nine underground laboratories, one of which was destroyed and the other eight missing at the end of the war along with thousands of Germans whose absence could not be accounted for by war mishaps. The Germans had, before WW II, an interest in planning for every contingency including the possible loss of the war. A German military expedition was sent to Antarctica and from this large project it is believed that some part of what is now Queen Maude Land (Neuschwabia) became the Nazi Redoubt to which not only the laboratories and many persons but also one of the two giant Junkers aircraft and the large freighter-sized submarines disappeared.
One year after the war, when America was depleted and in recovery, a major military expedition, Operation Highjump under the command of Admiral Byrd, went to Antarctica for what resulted in a prematurely terminated operation. Byrd’s comments point to having encountered an unexpected threat that Byrd intimated involved advanced aerospace technology. Today, the USG South Pole station is run under tight security and is conducting what are essentially covert operations there.

Farrell also includes in his book the "Nazi Antarctic Fortress of Solitude":

"...Nazi survival myths run the whole spectrum, from fanciful and implausible stories of underground bases in the Canadian Arctic, or on Antarctica itself armed with exotic weaponry, to more "mundane" and plausible stories of Nazi colonies in South America or secret weather stations and commando teams operating in Greenland during the war, to the well-known and best documented case, that of Operation Paperclip, America's wholesale importation of Nazi scientists and doctors after World War Two to assist the United States in continued covert development and research on a whole host of black projects. "

The German Antarctic Expedition in late 1938 had discovered several ice-free regions with lakes and signs of vegetation (mostly lichen and moss) in the territory’s interior. The expedition's geologists said that this phenomenon was due to hot springs or other geothermal sources. This discovery, it is claimed, led Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to hatch a bold plan to build a permanent base in Antarctica.

The brackish water of the warm lakes virtually confirmed that all had an outlet to the sea and would thus have been a haven for U-boats. The two ice-free mountain ranges in Neu Schwabenland presented no worse an underground tunnelling project for Organization Todt than anything they had encountered and overcome in Norway. The Germans were the world's experts at building and inhabiting underground metropolis.

At the end of the war the United States gave anything concerning Ohrdruf a top secret classification for 100 years upwards. The fact that there had been substantial underground workings there, and Ohrdruf was the location of the last Redoubt, was concealed absolutely. Fortunately for researchers, in 1962 the DDR had taken sworn depositions from all local residents during an investigation into wartime Ohrdruf, and upon the reunification of the two Germanys in 1989, these documents became available to all and sundry at Arnstadt municipal archive.

From the Arnstadt documents it is clear that the Charite Anlage unit operated in a three-story underground bunker with floors 70 by 20 metres. When working, the device emitted some kind of energy field which shut down all electrical equipment and non-diesel engines within a range of about eight miles. For this reason, even though Ohrdruf was crawling with SS, it was never photographed from the air nor bombed. Declassified USAF documents dated early 1945 admit the existence of an unknown energy field over Frankfurt/Main "and other locations" which "fantastic though it may appear" were able to "interfere with our aircraft engines at 30,000 feet."

Ohrdruf rebuilt below Neu Schwabenland during the last two years of the war would not have been difficult, and since Charite Anlage had the highest priority of anything in the Third Reich, it seems likely that it must have been. Such a base would have been impregnable, for the suggestion is that the force-field worked in various ways favourable to the occupants.

For more than sixty years rumors about a base code named “Station 211” have tantalized historians and researchers. Could it be that it was actually constructed and staffed as an ongoing project throughout the war? Perhaps Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz announced its completion when, in 1943, he said: "The German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress."

Most of the rumors agree that Station 211, if it really existed, was located inside a prominent ice-free mountain in the Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains of Neuschwabenland (Queen Maud Land).

In 1946, as Allied troop were returning home from the War and all thoughts were turned to peacetime pursuits, the United States Government, under President Harry Truman, found it absolutely imperative that a full military expedition be mounted against Antarctica. This campaign was called Operation Highjump. While the operation was billed in American newspapers, magazines and even the occasional newsreel as a mapping expedition, its actual military character is easily seen from a glance at its composition.

Admiral Byrd, America’s most recognized polar explorer may have searched for Station 211. In what was called Operation Highjump he had at his disposal the largest armada ever sent to Antarctica. The flotilla included an aircraft escort carrier (the Philippines Sea), two seaplane carriers (the Pine Island and Curritich), two destroyers (the Brownsen and Henderson), two escort ships (Yankee and Merrick), two fueling ships (Canister and Capacan), and a submarine (the Sennet). Additionally, four thousand troops equipped with helicopters, reliable fixed wing DC-3s, and a specially designed armored tracked vehicle were also at the Admiral's command, on what was officially described as a “training” mission.

Of all the high-ranking German military leaders, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz is the most often overlooked, and yet he may have been the most crucial for the story of Nazi survival and continued secret weapons research.

After all, the secret preparations and voyage of the U-234 to Japan, with its precious cargo of enriched uranium and infrared fuses, could not likely have taken place without his express knowledge, participation, and authorization. Thus, outside Kammler's "think tank", he was perhaps the one military leader of a conventional service arm to know the full extent of Nazi Germany's actual advances in atom bomb and other nuclear research.

Best known for his orchestration of the Nazi U-boat campaign against British, Canadian, and American shipping, his alleged role in the various survival myths is little known outside a small circle of World War Two researchers. And of all the Nazi military leaders, his selection by Adolf Hitler as the second Führer of the Third Reich is, at best, problematical, unless viewed in the light of these late war technology transfers and escaping Nazis.

Why would Hitler have chosen Dönitz, a World War One veteran of the High Seas Fleet of Kaiser Wilhelm, with the Kriegsmarine's well-known imperialist culture and leanings that he represented, to be his successor?

A conventional answer is afforded by the circumstances. Betrayed on all sides - by Himmler and Göring themselves - a desperate Hitler reached out to what he thought was the most loyal conventional military service arm of the Wehrmacht, the Navy. But the survival mythos contributes a very different perspective from which to view Hitler's possible motivations..

Dönitz himself does nothing to allay those suspicions, either during or immediately after the war. Dönitz on more than one occasion alluded to the Navy's role in exotic secret weapons research and in the construction of very secret bases far from the Reich homeland. In 1943 the Grand Admiral is reported to have stated that "the German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress."

Strange language for an admiral well-known for cold calculation in military strategy and tactics, and not well-known to be inclined to mystical statements. Then again, in 1944, the Grand Admiral doled out a little more information: "
The German Navy will have to accomplish a great task in the future. The German Navy knows all hiding places in the oceans and therefore it will be very easy to bring the Führer to a safe place should the necessity arise and in which he will have the opportunity to work out his final plans."

But it was Dönitz's almost insane remarks at Nuremberg that seemed to point clearly to one of the two polar regions as the "site" for these "plans". At Nuremberg he boasted of "an invulnerable fortress, a paradise-like oasis in the middle of eternal ice."

Germany built more than two dozen “super subs” during the war. Each was the size of an aircraft carrier, but they weren’t built as war ships, they were underwater cargo ships. Initially they were used to re-supply the submarine “Wolfpacks.” Later, it would seem, they were pressed into transporting tools, equipment, raw materials, and perhaps even slave labor to the south polar base. Evidence suggests that the U-boat traffic to Neuschwabenland continued even after Germany’s surrender in 1945.

During the war, surface ships were involved in this massive effort, but as the tide of war turned against the Germans the bulk of the transport work fell to the U-boats and their crews.

Several surface ships appear to have been put on "watch dog" duty, re-supplying the subs and keeping Allied shipping away.

The exact nature and extent of how high the level of U-boat activity in the South Atlantic was will probably never be known, however, some insight might be gleaned from the fact that between October 1942 and September 1944 16 German U-boats were sunk in the South Atlantic area. And... some of these submarines did appear to be engaged in covert activities.

A fine example of this would be that of U-859 which, on 4 April 1944 at 04.40hrs, left on a mission carrying 67 men and 33 tons of mercury sealed in glass bottles in watertight tin crates. The submarine was later sunk on 23 September by a British submarine (HMS Trenchant) in the Straits of Malacca and although 47 of the crew died, 20 survived. Some 30 years later one of these survivors spoke openly about the cargo and divers later confirmed the story on rediscovering the mercury. The significance being that mercury is usable as a fuel source for certain types of aerospace propulsion. Why would a German submarine be transporting such a cargo so far from home? It is not odd, at all, if one considers the fact that aviation/avionics construction is what the Polar Base Station 211 seems to be all about...

The type XXI U-boat, like most U-boats in the German Navy by that time, was fitted with the special Schnorchel device that allowed its main diesel engines to operate while submerged underwater. It is quite possible that these newer Type XXI U-boats also had the newer Schnorchels fitted with special anti-radar coatings. But the Type XXI was also outfitted with the special "Walther" turbine, an underwater jet" device that utilized hydrogen peroxide that allowed great underwater cruising speeds. In effect, these turbines were "silent" engines allowing great underwater speeds for limited durations of time. Thus, the Type XXI had brought submarine technology and warfare to a new and sophisticated level by the war's end. But would even the Type XXI have been able to brave the North and then South Atlantic Oceans, by that point in the war all but Allied lakes? There is some indication that not only were they successful in doing so, but wildly so. The Germans had adapted special new guidance systems to missiles, and torpedoes. These systems included wire-guidance, as well as magnetic proximity fuses.

On 2 May 1945, a flotilla of U-boats, many of them Type XXIs, carefully husbanded by Dönitz at Kristiansand fjord in Norway, departed in a wolf pack for Iceland, making the traditional run through the straits between Iceland and Greenland.

What happened next has been deleted from what passes as history, at least in the countries of the former Allied Powers. What happened was the last great sea battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boat convoy ran straight into an Allied naval battle formation.The result was stunning. Using the new torpedoes... the Allied ships were totally annihilated. Apparently the Allies never quite realized what they had run into.

Our only third-party report of the event was an article in a South American newspaper which learned of the event. A quote from the only survivor of the attack is "May God help me, may I never again encounter such a force" - British Destroyer Captain. This was reportedly carried in "El Mercurio Santiago", Chile, and "Der Weg" a paper published by exiled Germans living in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The British consistently maintained a flotilla of destroyers, accompanied occasionally by heavier units of light and heavy cruisers, on station in these straits throughout the war. The use of new torpedoes - whether wire-guided, acoustic-seeking, or magnetic proximity-fused - leads once again back to Karnrnler's "think tank" secret weapons empire. These torpedoes, plus the high-submersible speeds and "proto-stealth" capabilities of the Type XXI U-boats would have been more than a match for the British destroyers on station between Iceland and Greenland.

History  gives us further clues as to a German-Antarctica connection, for it records that Hans-Ulrich Rudel of the German Luftwaffe was being groomed by Hitler to be his successor. It is known that Rudel made frequent trips to Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America nearest Antarctica. of Martin Bormann’s last messages from the Bunker in Berlin to Dönitz also mentioned Tierra del Fuego.

It is reasonable to suppose that once the first phases of construction at Station 211 were complete, a number of experimental weapons research and development programs would have been relocated there. It is well known that the German High Command hung on believing that the new weapons under development would turn the tide of the war back in Germany’s favor. With ever increasing Allied bombing and armies closing in on Germany from the east, west and south it would seem prudent to move one’s most precious projects to somewhere beyond reach -- and what could be further from the Allies’ grasp than Antarctica.

And what does Farrell think happened to Kammler and his work?
"...the secret weapons think tank, the Kammlerstab, survived the war more or less intact, and continued its work in a variety of host countries, most particularly in the United Kingdom and even more so in the United States, either in concert with them, and sometimes independently of them." 

The technology of large underground working spaces was first pioneered in modern times by the Nazis and has been vastly expanded by the USG, though almost all of it is unknown to the public. Dr. Richard Sauder has made it his quest to explore this undisclosed topic. The Nazis would have had the tunneling technology required to go underground (or under ice) in Antarctica, though this intriguing aspect of post-WW II Nazis in Antarctica, Argentina and Chile is a topic for future coverage.
The second undisclosed area - the biggest secret within the USG - is further outside the box than what actually happened at the end of WW II and requires some mental preparation to consider seriously. It relates to what Farrell and some others think was an incident involving secret post-WW II Nazi technology: the Roswell incident in New Mexico. Others think it was an event involving extraterrestrials. 
One of the best documentary pieces of evidence regarding UFOs is the "Twining memo”"of U.S. General Nathan Twining, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1955-58. In it (September 23, 1947, AF200-20) he wrote concerning UFOs: “The phenomenon reported is something real and not visionary or fictitious.” Even General Douglas MacArthur said (NYT, 8OCT55): “Because of the developments of science, all countries on earth will have to unite to survive and to make a common front against attack by people of other planets. The politics of the future will be cosmic, or interplanetary.” Such political subject-matter is now called exopolitics.
In Britain, Commander in Chief of the Royal Air Force, Marshall Lord Dowding, ("London Sunday Dispatch", 11 July 1954) said: “More than 10,000 sightings have been reported, the majority of which cannot be accounted for by any ‘scientific’ explanation... I am convinced that these objects do exist and that they are not manufactured by any nation on earth.” In Canada, in a top-secret government memorandum of 21 November 1950, Wilbert Smith wrote: “The matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States government, rating higher even than the H-bomb. Flying saucers exist. Their modus operandi is unknown but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Doctor Vannevar Bush.”
Exopolitics might be the most closely guarded secret, though other countries are more open about it. These topics take engineers a long way from transistor circuit modeling, yet there is sufficient evidence to consider the matter seriously from a technical standpoint. Some of the best investigators involved are engineers, such as Stanton Friedman 
and Robert Wood.  The consequences for disclosure are enormous and some people are making the case that highly-advanced covert technology should be made public for the benefit of the world.

-- with material by Dennis Feucht
EDN Network
February 20, 2014

At the turn of the current century, both Cook and the Polish military journalist Witkowski tracked Kammler and his top-secret Nazi energy work to the Wenzeslaus Mine, located about 215 miles west of Warsaw in Lower Silesia, near the border with Czechoslovakia. This mine is in Ludwikowice Klodzkie, formerly Ludwigsdorf. The location was perfect for security purposes as it was outside Germany yet within the Greater Third Reich. Additionally, Kammler spoke fluent Czech.

During their journey, Witkowski revealed his access to a formerly classified Soviet document detailing the interrogation at the end of the war of a Rudolf Schuster, who had been a member of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, or Reich Central Security Office, Nazi Germany’s version of the Department of Homeland Security.

Schuster revealed that in June of 1944, he was transferred to a special evacuation Kommando called General Plan 1945, formed by Martin Bormann to evacuate valuable science and technology from the Reich. Schuster, who was not privy to the plan’s overall agenda, nevertheless located much of these evacuation activities in the area of the Wenzeslaus Mine.

Schuster’s testimony, coupled with other information, convinced Cook that the Bormann evacuation plan had been one of the Nazis’ greatest secrets.

"There has never been any official acknowledgment of the existence of the special evacuation Kommando," he wrote.

It was this unacknowledged evacuation operation that saved the Reich’s most precious technology. Once at the mine site, Cook and Witkowski found remnants of what once had been a secret SS testing and production facility that may have even included a giant early superconductor.

In 1931, the Wenzeslaus Mine suffered an accident that caused bankruptcy and a takeover by the Polish government.

With the occupation of Poland, the mine was reconditioned by the Nazis as a gigantic science center.

"The whole area, in the center of which was located the main left shaft, proved to be the interior of a deep valley, which was accessible only through two 'mountain passes," noted Witkowski.

"Since the remnants of watchtowers could be seen in them, it was obvious that the whole area had been closely guarded, and its configuration caused that in this way the whole valley was physically cut off [from] the outside world."

This valley, about three hundred yards across, was bisected by rail lines, and lined with a variety of structures, concrete bunkers, and guard stations, many covered with dirt and trees to act as camouflage. Today the site is virtually ruins and overgrown with trees and vegetation.

Cook saw that, "the Germans had gone to a great deal of trouble to ensure that the place looked pretty much as it had always looked since mining operations began here at the turn of the last century, a clear indication that whatever had happened here during the war had been deeply secret...."

"Almost everything that was known about the Wenzeslaus Mine had been handed down from [SS General Jakob] Sporrenberg [the officer appointed to command the 'northern route' of General Plan 1945’s evacuation Kommando].

"It had been run by the SS, had employed slave-labor and had been sealed from the outside world by a triple ring of check points and heavily armed guards.”"

Sporrenberg’s testimony and affidavits, the only known description of the strange experiments at the mine, were given during a postwar trial in Poland. He was found guilty of war crimes and executed.

In the closing days of the war, most of the local population was evacuated westward. In fleeing the Russians, many of these refugees died during the fighting or froze in one of the coldest winters on record. Today, most of the local residents are newcomers with no recollection of what transpired at the mine during the war.

A central shaft led downward to the original mine as well as a labyrinth of additional underground facilities dug by Germans. But what most intrigued Cook and Witkowski was a huge circular concrete structure. Green camouflage paint was still visible on the edges. The circular structure was formed by twelve thick columns supporting a dodecagon-shaped reinforcing concrete ring about ninety feet in diameter.

Initially, Witkowski thought this might be the remains of a cooling tower. He abandoned this idea once he saw cooling towers at a different location on photographs of the area, taken in 1934. Next he thought of the structure as a “fly trap,” similar to those used to test helicopters and other hovering aircraft . Yet, this answer was not satisfactory either in that the researchers found a concrete duct containing thick electric cables leading to a power-generating station.

Learning that high-voltage current cannot be used in mines with the potential for flammable gas - such as the Wenzeslaus Mine - Cook and Witkowski determined that the structure had nothing to do with mining but was used in connection with the strange experiments described to his captors by the SS officer Sporrenberg.

These experiments centered around a bell-shaped object - appropriately enough codenamed Die Glocke, or the Bell - which was housed in a concrete chamber hundreds of feet underground. According to the research of Witkowski and Cook, the Bell was made from hard, heavy metal and cylindrical in shape with a semicircular cap and hook or clamping device on top.

Huge quantities of electricity were fed into it through thick cables dropping into the housing chamber from the outside. Inside the Bell was a thermos-like tube encased in lead and filled with a metallic liquid.

During operation, the Bell was covered by a ceramic material, apparently to act as insulation. Inside, two contra-rotating cylinders filled with a mercury-like and violet-colored substance spun a vortex of energy, which emitted a strange phosphorescent blue light and made such a buzzing sound that operators nicknamed it the Bienenstock, or beehive.

Due to the phosphorescent light and reports that operators suffered from nervous-system disruption, headaches, and a metallic taste, Witkowski concluded the Bell’s operation involved iodizing radiation as well as a very strong magnetic field of energy.

The scientists experimenting with the Bell would place various plants, animals, and animal tissue within its energy field.

"In the initial test period from November to December 1944, almost all the samples were destroyed," noted Cook.

 "A crystalline substance formed within the tissues, destroying them from the inside; liquids, including blood, gelled and separated into clearly distilled fractions."

Very little is known for certain about the Bell. However, it was given the highest - and perhaps most unique - classification possible in the Third Reich. In a few captured documents, experimenters with the Bell were said to be working on something Kriegsentscheidend, or decisive for the war. Most top-secret German weapons, including the V rockets, were classified Kriegswichtig, or important to the war.

One major reason that so little is known about the Bell was the loss of the scientists involved in the project.

"They were taken out and shot by the SS between the 28th of April and the 4th of May, 1945," explained Witkowski.

"Records show that there were 62 of them, many of them Germans. There were no survivors, but then that’s hardly surprising.... It’s quite clear that someone had gone to great lengths to clean up."

The whole concept is a nightmare - Nazis tinkering with the building blocks of the universe. And it gets even worse.

To try and understand the purpose of the Bell requires a brief side trip into the amazing world of cutting-edge science and quantum physics. While discussions and articles about energy manipulation - whether termed cold fusion, antigravity, or free energy - have been generally discouraged as science fiction in mainstream America, many credible writers have dealt with the subject.

In his 2003 book "Winning the War: Advanced Weapons, Strategies, and Concepts for the Post-9/11 World", Colonel John B. Alexander noted, "A potential link between superconductor quantum mechanics and gravity has been inferred from recent quantum gravity research. Another approach to modifying gravity involved the manipulation of the quantum vacuum ZPE [Zero Point Energy found in the vacuum of space] field. One proposed experiment to manipulate the ZPE involves the use of ultrahigh-intensity lasers to irradiate a magnetized vacuum. If any of these are successful it will change energy issues on Earth and our relationship with the universe by allowing deep space travel.

The idea of gaining mastery - and power - from the environment around us is nothing new.

Such ideas were advanced by American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown, who, in the early 1920s, experimented with antigravity based on his understanding that a charged capacitor tended to move toward a positive plate when sufficiently energized in the hundred kilovolt and upward range.

Brown contended that all matter is essentially an “electrical condition.”

"It fact, it might be said that the concrete body of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy which, in itself, is quite intangible."

Brown’s theories echoed those of U.S. electrical engineer Nikola Tesla, whose discovery in 1888 of the rotating magnetic field led to alternating-current (AC) electricity transmission. Tesla foresaw limitless free energy by simply tapping into the Earth’s natural magnetic energy field.

In 1908, long before the idea of rotating magnetic fields was commonplace in science, Tesla stated: "Every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in motion this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested, the primary substance reverts to its normal state [stillness].

"It appears, then, possible for man through harnessed energy of the medium and suitable agencies for starting and stopping ether whirls to cause matter to form and disappear. At his command, almost without effort on his part, old worlds would vanish and new ones spring into being.

"He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, adjust its distance from the sun, guide it on its eternal journey along any path he might choose, through the depths of the universe. He could make planets collide and produce his [own] suns and stars, his heat and light, he could originate life in all its infinite forms. To cause at will the birth and death of matter would be man’s grandest deed, which would make him the master of physical creation, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny."

The belief that antigravity or other exotic technologies were passed from the Nazis to the Allies has been further supported by sporadic periodical coverage of antigravity in the late 1940s and early 1950s. This was at a time before the total blackout of news concerning energy-manipulation experimentation was enforced as a "matter of national security."

Nick Cook's book, "The Hunt for Zero Point", Century/Random House, London 2001 is full of references to his own anxiety and the anxiety of many of the technical people and scientists he contacted that they would be painted as dreamers and idiots by their colleagues and the media if they let themselves become involved in investigations into a tabooed area of science that had acquired a very unsavory reputation due to its historical origins and connection with political fringe groups.

In order to forestall the impression that I have gone crazy and lost contact with reality, I introduce the author of the book, which by the way is published not by a hole-in-the-wall publisher, but by one of the most well-known publishing houses in England".

For 15 years or more, Nick Cook, now 42, has written articles on the newest developments in the weapons industry, with emphasis on aeronautics. He is advisor to the worldwide leading journal for weapons and weapon systems "Jane's Defence Weekly" and editor of the air weapons section of that journal. His articles also appear in many of the larger British magazines, and his commentaries on weapons development and security issues are broadcasted by the large TV companies of the world. He is considered one of the world's foremost experts in the area of military aeronautics.

The English-language science program "Discovery Channel" broadcasted a two-hour report on the subject covered in this book, written and presented by Cook, in which he introduced the audience into secrets of the US weapons industry of which he had received knowledge or just made educated assumptions.

Cook was educated at Eaton and has received a degree in Arabic and Islamic studies. The author's lack of scientific training is the weakest point of this book, for it leads him to some obvious errors and misunderstandings, which undermines his competence. It is also irritating that Cook does not make any references to source literature, but attempts to allay the reader's skepticism with a bibliography only. However, a search of the Internet showed that this bibliography, short though it may be, should be a good starting point for investigation of the subject.

Nearly 10 years ago, Nick Cook found a journal article by M. Gladych, dating from 1956, at his workplace at Jane's Defence Weekly, which reported on the advanced state of development of gravity motors that would make possible nearly effortless travel and transport based on a technology which suspended the effects of gravity . Nothing has come of this, as we all know. Cook was bothered by the article: who had put it on his work desk and why?

What chiefly excited Cook's interest were statements in the article of technical persons in the US aviation industry who were apparently working on a project in the mid-1950s with the purpose to neutralize the force of gravity by means of an electromagnetic apparatus with which one could cause things to float in the air. Was this merely a journalistic hoax, or were leading US airplane manufacturers really working on such a project? Nick Cook tracked down the last one of the quoted technical authorities still living, but his anxious, nearly panicky, refusal to comment made the matter even more irresistible for Nick Cook. What was going on here?

In his book, Nick Cook describes his search for knowledge in this area move for move: In the US archives he found evidence that at the close of the war the US government confiscated German "wonder" weapons technology and brought it to the USA, and that nothing has been heard of it since: beam weapons for antiaircraft defense (apparently lasers) and various kinds of vaguely described flying objects. He found eyewitness reports by US bomber pilots describing unknown flying objects and unusual optical and magnetic effects in German air space near the end of the war.

From diverse but obscure sources it is apparent that the Third Reich was working on the development of various experimental flying devices. Names such as Schriever, Habermohl, and Miethe appear - they were men who worked on secret projects at laboratories located in Bohemia and Moravia. However, this line of inquiry led Cook into the proximity of politically dangerous groups who have cobbled together a substitute religion out of secret weapons development during the Third Reich, so he abandoned it and turned back to investigate the researches made in the USA and Canada after the war.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Canadian firm Avro conducted experiments with "flying saucers" that were later made public. The experiments were discontinued. But was this all? For example, what can one make of the numerous sightings of unknown flying objects since the end of the war? And do the secret proceedings at the famous-infamous Area 51, the top-secret US air base in the Nellis military test range in southern Nevada, owe anything to the development of new technology that was carried out in Germany in the 1940s?

With his excellent connections to the leading US weapons manufacturers, Cook attempted to get a look behind the curtains at the most secret projects under way, at companies and agencies such as Lockheed-Martin, Northrop Grumman, and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. He made contact with various aviation and weapons development experts and received the almost conspiratorial support of researchers who, while not giving him useful information, told him he was definitely on the right track. 


Revolution in Physics


The weakest point of Cook's book -due to the author's lack of scientific training- is at once its most fascinating: considerations of certain areas of scientific research that could alter our scientific worldview fundamentally, if new theories that were regarded as mere speculations should prove valid. Cook examines some of these areas with the help of a number of scientists. One point is that Einstein's theory of relativity may be in need of correction, since the proposition that objects can not move faster than the speed of light (ca. 300,000 km per second, or 1.08 million km per hour) may not hold.


The breakthrough in physical sciences anticipated for nearly a century with respect to the unification of the four natural forces (electromagnetism, gravity, strong and weak nuclear forces) may be at the point of a practical (partial) realization, because experiments carried out by physicists in the last ten years may prove that gravity can be screened by electromagnetic devices, and thus things placed "above" an electromagnetic field may be made weightless, so as to hover. Even more, one could even speak of a repelling effect here by which an object could be accelerated. The next step might be the generation of gravity beams which could cause things to have weight in certain directions.


There are a number of reasons to believe that our world is built in a way quite different than we have been accustomed to think. According to certain quantum theories, our world does not simply 'exist,' but is formed from the statistical appearance and disappearance of energy and material quanta, the so-called quantum background noise. Should it prove possible to tap this quantum noise (the so-called zero point energy) before it disappears again into nothingness, it would be possible to extract energy quasi out of nothing. What sounds like a perpetuum mobile, or rather, an apparatus that takes energy from the void-which contradicts all physics as now taught (the conservation of energy, the fundamental principle of thermodynamics) - would be relativized, since the theory assumes the existence of parallel universes, so that our 'energy from the void' pump would merely move energy from one parallel universe to another.

Moving faster than the speed of light, levitation, manipulation of gravity, tractor beams, parallel universes, hyperspace, zero point energy: does this all sound like the Star Trek? Yes, and if one believes it is real, that is what our future looks like. That is what Nick Cook thought when he published an article in Jane's Defence Weekly, "Warp Drive When?"

Science or Humbug?

One can easily imagine what our establishment physicists think of all this, as it would turn all physics from the last 2000 years upside down. Yevgeni Podkletnov, a Russian physicist, is one of the leading physicists in the area of "revisionist" physics. When his gravity screening experiments had progressed to such a point that he wished to publish an article in one of the worldwide leading journals for physical science ("Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics"), it caused an unexpected uproar that caused a set back for the whole project of at least five years. Before the paper was published, Ian Sample of the "Sunday Telegraph" heard of the new revolutionary research and straightaway wrote a shocking article about it  published on 1 September 1996. The term "antigravity" used in this article, which is regarded as extremely unscientific, shed a negative light on the whole project and was devastating. The 'scientific community' launched a flurry of attacks and caused most of the other scientists involved in the project to get cold feet and withdraw their support for the article, leaving Podkletnov out in the rain. Further pressure from the 'scientific community' caused Podkletnov to lose his position at University of Tampere in Finland.


The same thing happened to other scientists who got near this subject: they were made ridiculous by their colleagues, ostracized, often stripped of their honor and dignity, and frequently even having their careers ended. These are behavioral patterns that are only too familiar to Historical Revisionists and explain why Nick Cook found it difficult to draw a technical expert into conversation, since in such matters they shun the media like the devil shuns holy water.


Podkletnov's experiments, however, were taken seriously enough that even NASA showed interest. Together with the University of Huntsville NASA carried out experiments along the lines Podkletnov had followed.

Also, two of the world's leading aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and British Aerospace, started their own research projects

Configuration of gravity modification experiment by Boeing


Two BAe Military Aircraft Division's concepts for air vehicles employing anti-gravity Doesn't this look too familiar?





German Physics

After Cook received an experimental demonstration of 'revisionist' physics that convinced him that he was dealing with serious research, he took up again the pursuit of physics in the Third Reich, which, he believed, would bring him to the origin of the new 'revisionist' physics.

Cook's reports on secret weapons research in the Third Reich are, as one might expect in the contemporary climate of opinion, colored with the usual polemic about the 'Empire of Evil,' but one should not ignore it. The most interesting part of his investigation brought him into contact with the son of Viktor Schauberger, whose practical researches led to a number of revolutionary technologies, none of which were developed to the point of practical usefulness. Toward the end of the war, Schauberger collaborated on the development of German flying saucers.

It is true that Schauberger was brought to America at the end of the war by Operation Paperclip, a program to kidnap leading German scientists and to bring them to the USA, but due to his age he had little success in the replication of his research - that, at least, is the official version.

At the suggestion of a Polish researcher, Cook journeyed to Silesia and inspected a secret research facility whose purpose is now a mystery. Cook speculated on the basis of information he had collected that the site could have been a test stand for a prototype gravity-drive flying saucer.

Cook discusses briefly the desperate research conducted by the Third Reich in remote hideaways of science in the face of extremely limited resources in order to find technical solutions to their military problems. This despair had as one result that researchers were allowed to deviate from the accepted theories and to penetrate into areas deemed impossible by established physics.

According to Cook, the Germans may have succeeded in developing a technology for screening gravity and maybe even for tapping zero point energy, without being entirely aware of the theoretical basis. Cook is effusively shocked at the possibility that the Third Reich, the 'Empire of Evil,' may have been at the threshold of getting access to unlimited energy resources and transport methods, based apparently on the victory of quantum theory over relativity theory, the victory of applied research over theoretical science, or, as Cook puts it, the victory of 'German physics' over 'Jewish physics,' as it was then polemically called in the Third Reich. What a horror that would have been, indeed!

... But They Hover After All!

Podkletnov has returned to Finland and has recently published an article in which he reports on successful experiments on the generation of gravity beams.


He told Cook in a conversation that he had also succeeded in completely screening gravity from objects, thus enabling them to hover.


It appears that this technology has reached a point where practical applications are possible. Thus, Ning Li, who has done research for NASA at the University of Huntsville, Alabama, has withdrawn from the physics faculty of the University of Huntsville in order to devote herself to applying the results of her research to practical purposes. Cook stated that Podkletnov had received an offer from Toshiba to make his research results commercially useful.


Of course, there are many hangers-on involved here because this area of physics is new and little understood, it is difficult not just for the layman, but also for the technical specialist, to distinguish between serious research and charlatanry (see illustration). It should be kept in mind that specious promises of costless energy should not be lightly believed.




During a telephone conversation, Nick Cook told me what the reactions to his latest book were, which has become a bestseller in England. The book was favorably reviewed in the English daily newspaper "The Guardian", in the science magazine "New Scientist", and in a number of smaller English daily newspapers. Cook's colleagues at "Jane's Defence Weekly" were thoroughly approving of his work, and some of them congratulated him on its success. The reaction from the aeronautics and weapons industries was divided. While some rejected his main thesis of the emergence of a new physics, others thanked him for having opened their eyes. The 'scientific community' was also divided. Some of them dismissed Cook's work as nonsense, while others were grateful that he had popularized this interesting and controversial theme and had rescued it from oblivion. The most negative reaction came from a UFO researcher who called Cook a "neo-Nazi" because he said the historical origin of flying saucer technology was in the Third Reich. (UFO researchers want to believe in little green men) This label is utter nonsense because Nick Cook's opinion of the Third Reich is, as has been stated, distinctly negative.

Nick Cook stated: "
It would be a mistake to disregard the research in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s just because it was done in the Third Reich. This kind of suppression of facts would be unscientific and would be just as bad as the suppression of facts that happened during that era."


So it may turn out that not only Otto, Diesel, Wankel, Jet and Rocket motors were invented in Germany, but also gravity motors - Nazis or no Nazis. 


Extract from Germar Rudolf, "On Third Reich Flying Saucers, German Physics, and the Perpetuum Mobile", first published in "Vierteljahreshefte für freie Geschichtsforschung", 5(4) (2001); translated by Michael Humphrey

In 1956, the Swiss aviation journal "Interavia Aerospace Review" published an article titled “Towards Flight Without Stress or Strain... or Weight.”

The article carried the dateline of Washington, D.C., and stated, "Electro-gravitics research, seeking the source of gravity and its control, has reached a stage where profound implications for the entire human race begin to emerge. Perhaps the most startling and immediate implications of all involve aircraft, guided missiles and free space flight of all kinds."

The article added, "There are gravity research projects in every major country of the world. A few are over 30 years old." 

It also mentioned that, over and above theoretical research, there was empirical research into the, "study of matter in its super-cooled, super-conductive state, of jet electron streams, peculiar magnetic effects [and] the electrical mechanics of the atom’s shell."

The article stated that the weight of some materials utilized in this research had been reduced by as much as 30 percent by "energizing" them. But in a premonition of what was to come, it added, "Security prevents disclosure of what precisely is meant by ‘energizing’ or in which country this work is underway."

Proving the ability of superconductors to produce antigravity effects, researchers at Pacific National Laboratory, in the late 1980s, cooled a ceramic superconductor with liquid nitrogen and levitated a round magnet in midair.

Some of the companies involved in this cutting- edge research, according to the Interavia Aerospace Review article, included:

• Lear, Inc.
• Glenn L. Martin Company
• Sperry-Rand Corporation
• Bell Aircraft
• Clarke Electronics Laboratories
• the U.S. General Electric Company

The names of these firms are especially noteworthy, because in his 2001 book on Zero Point energy, author Cook cited another 1956 magazine article naming aviation experts Lawrence D. Bell, George S. Trimble, and William P. Lear as stating that work was then under way with "nuclear fuels and equipment to cancel out gravity."

This article, from an unnamed publication and titled "The G-Engines Are Coming!" may have let slip mention of an incredible new technology.

"All matter within the ship would be influenced by the ship’s gravitation only," Lear was quoted as saying. "This way, no matter how fast you accelerated or changed course, your body would not feel it any more than it now feels the tremendous speed and acceleration of the earth."

During the 1960s and 1970s, public discussion of energy manipulation such as antigravity was virtually closed off, scorned as fantasy or conspiracy theory. Yet, it is clear that within government and military circles, work continued secretly in this area. Could it have been based on transferred Nazi super-science?

Bruce L. Cathie, a former New Zealand commercial pilot, theoretician, and an advocate of the existence of a worldwide energy grid, wrote in 1971, "Somewhere, I knew, [my proposed energy grid] system contained a clue to the truth of [Einstein’s] Unified Field which, he had postulated, permeates all of existence. I didn’t know at the time that this clue had already been found by scientists who were well ahead of me in the play.... for many years they have been carrying out full-scale research into the practical applications of the mathematical concept contained in that theory." 

Cathie speculated: "The only way to traverse the vast distances of space is to possess the means of manipulating, or altering, the very structure of space itself; altering the space-time geometric matrix, which to us provides the illusion of form and distance.

"...for distance is an illusion.

"The only thing keeping places apart in space is time. If it were possible to move from one position to another in space in an infinitely small amount of time, or 'zero time,' then both the positions would co- exist, according to our awareness. By speeding up the geometric of time we will be able to bring distant places within close proximity.

"This is the secret of UFOs - they travel by means of altering the spatial dimensions around them and repositioning in space-time."

One hint that the U.S. government experimented with such technology came in December 1980, when Betty Cash, Vickie Landrum, and Landrum’s seven-year-old grandson Colby encountered a large, glowing, diamond-shaped object hovering in the air near the small town of Huffman, Texas.

The trio, supported by other witnesses in the area, said the object was surrounded by military CH-47 helicopters. Days later, the trio experienced painful swellings and skin blisters, along with headaches, nausea, and hair loss, all symptoms of intense electromagnetic radiation. In 1985, the three victims sought $20 million in damages from the U.S. government, but the following year, their suit was dismissed, based on denials by the government that any such craft existed in its inventory.

Yet another small public exposure to exotic energy manipulation may have come with the accidental discovery of single-atom (monatomic) elements in the 1970s by Phoenix-area cotton farmer David Hudson. His discovery was followed by several scientific papers exploring the mysteries of the atomic structure, nucleus deformation, and electromagnetism. Hudson himself obtained eleven worldwide patents on his "Orbitally Rearranged Monatomic Elements (ORME)."

Hudson found that the nuclei of such monatomic matter acted in an unusual manner. Under certain circumstances, they began spinning and creating strangely deformed shapes. Oddly, as these nuclei spun, they began to come apart on their own.

It was found, for example, that in the element rhodium 103, the nucleus became deformed in a ratio of two to one, which made it twice as long as it is wide, and entered a high- spin state. When all electrons are brought under the control of the nucleus of an atom, the nucleus attains a “highward,” or high-spin, state. When reaching a state of reciprocal relationship, the electrons turn to pure white light and the individual atoms fall apart, producing a white monatomic powder.

Using thermo-gravimetric analysis, it was found that a sample of Hudson’s monatomic matter lost 44 percent of its original weight when reduced to this white-powder state. By being either heated or cooled, it would gain or lose weight.

"By repeated annealing we could make the material weigh less than the pan weighed it was sitting in," said Hudson, ". . . or we could make it weigh 300–400 times what its beginning weight was, depending on whether we were heating or cooling it.... [I]f you take this white powder and put it on a quartz boat and heat it up to the point where it fuses with the quartz, it becomes black and it regains all its weight again. This makes no sense, it’s impossible, it can’t happen. But there it is."

British author Laurence Gardner noted, "Hudson was then asked to reverse the process fully by turning the powder back into a piece of metallic gold. It was like asking someone to remake an apple from a pan of apple sauce - seemingly impossible! Early trial led to some disastrous results.... By late 1995, the difficulties had been overcome and the figurative apple had indeed been rebuilt from the apple sauce.

"From this, there was no doubt that it was possible (just as in ancient metallurgical lore) to manufacture gold from a seemingly non-gold base product. From a commencing sample which registered as iron, silica, and aluminum, emerged an ingot which analyzed as pure gold. After centuries of trial, error, frustration, and failure, the Philosopher’s Stone of ancient times had at last been rediscovered."

Gardner amassed a wealth of material linking the white powder of gold to alchemists, the legendary Knights Templar, Solomon’s treasure, the manna of the Israelites, Moses, and ancient Egypt.

By the early 1990s, scientific papers were being published by the Niels Bohr Institute and Argonne National and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, substantiating the existence of these high-spin, monatomic elements and their power as superconductors.

Hudson also met with Dr. Hal Puthoff, director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Austin, Texas. Puthoff performs cutting-edge research into zero-point energy and gravity as a zero-point fluctuation force. He and other scientists have theorized that enough energy exists in the space found in the atoms inside an empty coffee cup to boil all the oceans of the Earth if fully utilized.

Puthoff had also theorized that matter reacting in two dimensions should lose about 44 percent of its gravitational weight, exactly the weight loss found by Hudson. When it was found that Hudson’s elements, when heated, could achieve a gravitational attraction of less than zero, Puthoff concluded the powder was “exotic matter” capable of bending time and space.

The material’s antigravitational properties were confirmed when it was shown that a weighing pan weighed less when the powder was placed in it than it did empty. The matter had passed its antigravitational properties to the pan.

Adding to their amazement, it was found that when the white powder was heated to a certain degree, not only did its weight disappear but the powder itself vanished from sight. When a spatula was used to stir around in the pan, there apparently was nothing there. Yet, as the material cooled, it reappeared in its original configuration. The material had not simply disappeared; it apparently had moved into another dimension.

Hudson also saw evidence of perpetual energy through the use of a superconductor.

"You literally start the superconductor flowing by applying a magnetic field," he said. "It responds to this by flowing light inside and building a bigger Meissner Field [Walter Meissner in 1933 discovered that light flowing within a superconductor produces an electromagnetic energy field that excludes external magnetic fields] around it.

"You can put your magnet down and walk away. Come back a hundred years later and it is still flowing exactly as when you left. It will never slow down. There is absolutely no resistance; it is perpetual motion and will run forever."

This new technology dealt with the manipulation and control of basic energy.

Some scientists believed that such control at the atomic and subatomic level might do much more than offer new propulsion technology. It might open the door to antigravity, limitless free energy, a cure for diseases such as AIDS and cancer, an end to the aging process, faster-than-light speeds, and much more, perhaps even inter-dimensional and time travel.

Since science is coming to the conclusion that gravity and time are interconnected aspects of energy, it is possible that the Bell was used for experimenting with time travel. This possibility is not as outrageous as it sounds, as many notable scientists and authors have written seriously about the possibility of time travel.

Astronomer and Pulitzer Prize winner Carl Sagan, director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University at the time of his death in 1996, when asked about time travel, stated: "Right now we’re in one of those classic, wonderfully evocative moments in science when we don’t know, when there are those on both sides of the debate, and when what is at stake is very mystifying and very profound.

"If we could travel into the past, it’s mind-boggling what would be possible. For one thing, history would become an experimental science, which it certainly isn’t today. The possible insights into our own past and nature and origins would be dazzling. For another, we would be facing the deep paradoxes of interfering with the scheme of causality that has led to our own time and ourselves. I have no idea whether it’s possible, but it’s certainly worth exploring."

Jenny Randles, a science-oriented British author, presented compelling examples of recent discoveries in her 2005 book Breaking the Time Barrier, which indicate the very real possibility of time travel. She noted that "a race to build a time machine has been going on since at least the Second World War."

After discussing "worm holes" in time and space, and other possible means of time travel, she pointed out, "... [F]rom our understanding of physics - if you travel faster than light, then you can overtake the flow of events that light happens to transmit. Since the passage of these events forms what we interpret as time, then by traveling faster than light you ought to travel through time. Spaceships that outstrip light speed are always going to moonlight as time machines."

Today, more than one scientist has claimed to have broken the light barrier, though official acceptance has been lacking.
Time-Traveling Nazis

This horrendous idea sounds preposterous, but the science is there and the Bell did exist.

No wonder certain powerful persons would go to any lengths to obtain or conceal such knowledge. Just such attempts began in the closing days of World War II, as the victors sought to learn the secrets of Nazi super- science.

It is clear that certain members of the American military were keen to learn Nazi secrets, as shown by this portion of a 1945 letter from Major General Hugh J. Knerr to Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz, the commander of U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe: "Occupation of German scientific and industrial establishments has revealed the fact that we have been alarmingly backward in many fields of research. If we do not take this opportunity to seize the apparatus and the brains that developed it and put the combination back to work promptly, we will remain several years behind while we attempt to cover a field already exploited."

Consider the rush into Czechoslovaki a by General George S. Patton’s Third Army even as the Europe an war wound to a close.


Mystery of the Long Runway

During the close of WWII, General Patton's army came upon a very unusual find at a captured German facility in France (near the V1 and V2 launch sites).

This finding was described in Patton's biography, which included specific data and photos, and also in an official document known as the "Patton memo". In fact, General Patton specifically warned the U.S. military of unbelievable facilities being found.

General Patton described coming upon a huge runway that was 200 feet wide, 11,300 feet long, and was made of concrete which was 14 feet thick. The memo stated that the runway was built by the Germans using thousands of slave laborers, and took several years to complete. It was his written opinion that the construction materials and labor force "surpassed that of the great pyramids" (his words). The runway incorporated a unique feature at the far end. An upward turned "ski slope" was built into the runway to allow larger aircraft with heavy cargo loads to take off more easily. This "ski slope" feature was later incorporated into the designs of British and Russian aircraft carriers.  

"The madcap, and some would say, militarily and politically indefensible, Allied dash away from Berlin and to south-central Germany and Prague are consistent with American knowledge, at some very high level, of Kammler’s SS Sonderkommando black projects and secret weapons empire," wrote Farrell.

Vernon Bowen, whose 1950s-era book on UFOs was classified by the U.S. government, relates how one of Patton’s officers, Colonel Charles H. Reed, organized the escape of the Lippizan horses from the Spanish Riding School at the end of the war, an event memorialized in the 1963 Disney film Miracle of the White Stallions.

Bowen noted that Reed saved the horses, "while on his mission of persuading the head of German intelligence to turn over to the U.S. the many truckloads of documents buried on the Czech-Austrian border - documents which are still secret today."

Could these documents have been Kammler’s technology files?

The Allies’ rejection of SS chief Himmler’s last-minute offer to surrender may not have been due to the "frantic attempts of a desperate mass murderer to avoid his inevitable fate," as described by mainstream historians, but instead because Himmler had lost real control over the exotic technology. After all, Himmler was too high-profile a person to be allowed to live on after the war. He reportedly committed suicide by taking a poison capsule on May 23, 1945, after being caught trying to sneak through British lines disguised as a German Army private.

Hans Kammler, on the other hand, was largely unknown to the public, though he undoubtedly was high on the list of wanted Nazi war criminals, considering his involvement in the construction of concentration camps and their gas chambers as well as his participation in the leveling of the Warsaw ghetto.

"Unlike Himmler," noted Cook, "Kammler had something of value to deal - something tangible. By early April [1945], Hitler and Himmler had placed under his direct control every secret weapon system of any consequence within the Third Reich - weapons that had no counterpart in the inventories of the three powers that were now bearing down on central Germany from the east and the west."

"The deal had already probably been cut between Kammler’s representatives and OSS [the U.S. Office of Strategic Services] station chief in Zurich, Allen Dulles, or via General Patton himself," Farrell surmised.

If such a deal was made with Patton, he did not live to see the results.

On 9 December 1945, while riding in his 1939 Cadillac staff car, Patton suffered a head injury when his car was struck by a 2 1/2-ton military truck that turned in front of them. Patton’s driver and a passenger, his chief of staff Major General Hobart “Hap” Gay, were uninjured. Paralyzed from the neck down, Patton was taken to a military hospital in Heidelberg, Germany, where he died on December 21.

Since the war, there have been several conspiracy theories regarding Patton’s death - one being that he was killed by his own government. Most have concentrated on his vocal assertions that the United States should have carried the war on into Russia and put an end to communism, plus his public advocacy of reinstating ranking Nazis to help rebuild Germany.

Noting that Patton, whose forces drove straight to the heart of Nazi research in Czechoslovakia, may well have been aware of Kammler and his Nazi superweapons, Farrell stated that if Patton was deliberately silenced, "then surely this [knowledge of Nazi super-science] is the most plausible motivation for the deed."

Did knowledge of the incredible ability to manipulate energy die with top Nazis at the end of the war? Consider the fate of Hans Kammler.

As the war drew to a close, Kammler made no secret that he intended to use both the V-2 scientists and rockets under his control as leverage for a deal with the Allies. On April 2, 1945, on Kammler’s orders, a special train carried rockets and five hundred technicians and engineers escorted by a hundred SS troopers to an Alpine redoubt in Bavaria.

According to von Braun and Dornberger, Kammler planned to "bargain with the Americans or one of the other Allies for his own life in exchange for the leading German rocket specialists."

"[Kammler] came to me in early April in order to say good-bye," recalled Nazi armaments minister Speer.

"For the first time in our four-year association, Kammler did not display his usual dash. On the contrary, he seemed insecure and slippery with his vague, obscure hints about why I should transfer to Munich with him. He said efforts were being made in the SS to get rid of the Führer. He himself, however, was planning to contact the Americans. In exchange for their guaranty of freedom, he would offer them the entire technology of our jet planes, as well as the A-4 rocket and other important developments...."

On 4 April 1945, when von Braun pressed Kammler for permission to resume rocket research, the SS officer quietly announced that he was about to disappear for "an indefinite length of time."

He was true to his word: no one saw Kammler again. As everyone knows, von Braun and Dornberger, along with other scientists and many of the V-2 rockets, eventually made their way to the United States, becoming founding members of its modern space program with no help from Kammler.

Jean Michel, himself an inmate of concentration camp Dora, which provided slave labor for Kammler’s rocket program, wrote of Kammler: "The chief of the SS secret weapon empire, the man in Himmler’s confidence, disappeared without a trace. Even more disturbing is the fact that the architect of the concentration camps, builder of the gas chambers, executioner of Dora, overall chief of all the SS missiles has sunk into oblivion. There is the Bormann mystery, the Mengele enigma; as far as I know, no one, to this day, has taken much interest in the fate of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler."

Michel, along with others, wondered, "Why had the 'cold and brutal calculator' described by Speer so abruptly discarded the trump cards he had so patiently accumulated?"

As the war drew to a close, Kammler, "had the good fortune to inspect the Czechoslovakian stretch of the front," wrote Witkowski. "After this event, nobody knew what became of him. Perhaps he died, though it is unlikely that this would never have been recorded."

The reports of Kammler’s death are varied and mutually exclusive.

One version has him committing suicide in a forest between Prague and Pilsen two days after Germany surrendered, while another said he was shot by his own SS aide in Prague. Another version was that he died in a shootout with Czech partisans. The Red Cross initially reported Kammler as "missing," but this was later changed to "dead" upon the testimony of a relative. The one common denominator regarding Kammler’s various death reports was that he was last seen in north central Czechoslovakia, in close proximity to the Wenzeslaus Mine - and the Bell.

Despite the lack of a body, no effort appeared to have been taken to establish the truth of Kammler’s death and, unlike his superior Bormann, Kammler was not tried in absentia at Nuremberg.

Kammler was not alone in his escape. Dozens of high-ranking former SS or party members simply disappeared. Many of them were associated with advanced technology programs.

Did Kammler and his cohorts escape with weapons plans for the amazing Bell project? Whoever controlled such secret technology was certainly in a strong position to strike a deal with one of the Allied nations.

With secret projects in the hands of the fanatical SS and with factories and research facilities scattered over - and under - the countryside, it is entirely conceivable that saucers, uranium weapons, the Bell, and other exotic technologies could have been developed without the knowledge of anyone except Himmler, Bormann, and Kammler. The high-profile Himmler had been taken out of the loop as far back as 1943.

The fates of Martin Bormann and Hans Kammler remain unproven.

"[T]he evidence is strong enough to suggest collusion at the highest levels between the United States and Nazi Germany governments - and that collusion extends down to those within U-234, its officers, crew and passengers - and has been maintained by powerful parties with vested interests on both sides of the Atlantic ever since," stated Hydrick.

If the highest circle of America’s ruling elite indeed obtained Nazi super-science in the wake of World War II, it came with a price - one these prewar, pro-Nazi sympathizers were willing to accept.

When American authorities realized the alternative and nonlinear physics within Nazi science, they knew it was beyond the frame of reference of most U.S. scientists, which is why they recruited so many Germans and brought them to America.

"The trouble was," recounted one government insider, "when the Americans took it all home with them, they found, too late, that it came infected with a virus - you take the science on, you take on aspects of the ideology as well."

President Eisenhower, as he was leaving office, gave his celebrated warning to the American people about the spiritual and cultural dangers of "the military industrial complex." With the influx of Nazi "Paperclip" scientists, many if not most of whom - including Dornberger, Oberth, and von Braun - were members of Kammler's "think tank", this warning by someone in the know must surely be interpreted differently than current standard explanations. Having fought the world's first "military-industrial complex" and doubtless seen at least some of its extraordinary inventory of weapons and theoretical papers,

President Eisenhower is surely raising another ominous, though overlooked, specter: Just whose military-industrial complex is he really warning about? What possible spiritual and cultural dangers were there to the American people from good old American companies like Boeing, DuPont, Lockheed, Hughes, and so on, unless, in importing ex-Nazi scientists and their unusual methods and insights and experimental results (often achieved at the cost of enormous human suffering), we inadvertently imported an underlying ideology at variance with traditional morality.

The intense interest of the Nazi leadership in occult or hidden subjects - from ancient artifacts to legends of prehistorical high-tech super-races - is well documented.

One legend suggests that the Holy Grail eventually became one of the prized possessions of the Cathars, a group of Gnostics who were exterminated in 1244 by a crusade organized by Pope Innocent and his Inquisition. According to this legend, leading up to their final decimation on March 1, the Cathars took their most sacred books and artifacts, which included both the Holy Shroud and the Holy Grail and then sought refuge in their nearly impenetrable mountain-top fortress of Montsegur, the principal seat of the Cathar Church since the year 1230. While their fortress was under siege by soldiers of the Inquisition, two or more Cathars are believed to have clandestinely escaped down the side of the mountain with many of the Cathar treasures, including both the Shroud and Mary’s Holy Grail, and then to have hid them in the surrounding countryside. The recovery of the Cathar relics in southern France has been an obsession of treasure hunters ever since.

In 1931 Otto Rahn was sent to Montsegur by Heinrich Himmler to search for the lost Cathar treasures. Rahn discovered tunnels and caverns beneath Montsegur, but he died mysteriously before he was able to extract any of the treasure interred within them. Another SS officer, Otto Skorzeny, was then dispatched by Himmler to complete the job, and according to one eye-witness account he was later seen leaving Montsegur with a plane load of relics headed for Himmler’s secret fortress of Wewelsburg. Then, states an additional eye witness account from the end of World War II, a German Heinkel 277 V-1 left Salzburg, Austria, bound for the East, possibly Nepal or Tibet, with a plane load of cargo believed to include the ancient Cathar relics. According to Howard Buechner, a retired U.S. Army Colonel, on board the German plane were also “twelve stone tablets of the Germanic Grail, which contained the key to ultimate knowledge.”  

The Holy Grail could, therefore, currently either reside in either southern France or in the Far East. But one alternate ending of its odyssey asserts that the Nazis eventually transported the Holy Grail from Berchtesgaden to Antarctica by a clandestine submarine and it now resides within a stone obelisk marking a cave in the Mühlig-Hoffman Mountains. This mysterious cave, known as the Emerald Cave, is supposedly linked by tunnels to caverns inside the Earth, where legends imply a subterranean civilization may exist. Interestingly, the Antarctic cave’s association with an emerald links the Holy Grail with the Stone of Heaven, a large emerald referred to by Wolfram Eschenbach in "Parzival" as being the true Holy Grail.

-- by Jim Marrs
extracted from 'Secret Societies Threaten to Take Over America'

In 1943 the Supreme Command of the Luftwaffe (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe) conducted a highly unusual study. The study consisted of a map of lower Manhattan Island. On the map are concentric circles detailing the blast and heat damage- radii of an atomic bomb detonation over New York City. But the most unusual aspect of this "study" is that it shows the detonation of an atom bomb in the 15-17 kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima, an odd "coincidence." 

The Luftwaffe's intentions are quite obvious and clear. The destruction of the financial and business center of New York City would alone have been an unparalleled military and psychological blow against the American war effort. Beyond this, given the fact that New York City was an important point of embarkation for American shipping and troops, as well as a naval base, and a transportation hub for the entire American northeast, such a blow would have been incalculable.

For the Nazi leadership, such a blow would have made military and political sense. It would have demonstrated conclusively to the United States that Germany was capable of mounting significant military operations against the American mainland, and at levels of destructive capability that were militarily, economically, and psychologically devastating. From their point of view, such a blow would arguably been seen as weakening American resolve and perhaps, after a succession of similar such blows against prominent targets such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington DC or Norfolk, would conceivably have led to America's exit from the war, leaving Britain to follow not far behind. The war against the Soviet Union could then either have been prosecuted without mercy until the inevitable Soviet capitulation, or at the minimum, a negotiated peace highly favorable to the Reich.

In October of 1943, then, such a study was a tempting prospec

Why if the Nazis had nuclear weapons, did they still lose the war?

The most logical explanation appears to be Churchill's threat to drop Anthrax laced cattle cakes over Germany in August 1944. Germany had no antibiotics and would have faced starvation within 2 weeks had Anthrax been used.

We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannons, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see. We still have things that need to be finished, and when they are finished, they will turn the tide. 

-- Adolf Hitler, 13 March 1945, addressing officers of the German Ninth Army

Even earlier than this however USA at the beginning of July 1944 threatened Hitler through the German Legation in Lisbon that unless he sued for peace within 6 weeks Dresden would face attack with a nuclear bomb.

The casualty figures for Dresden have seen a constant, politically correct downward revision over the years, actually dipping as low as 35,000. However, as recently as 1991 Juan Maler wrote, very logically:

"If 55,000 people lost their lives in the bombing raid on Hamburg in July 1943, then it is impossible for the death toll to have been lower in Dresden. One must bear in mind that Hamburg possessed a functioning anti-air raid defense as well as the fact that the bomb payload dropped on Hamburg was not even one-third of that dropped on Dresden. [...] Irving was able to prove 135,000 dead. However, 480,000 bombing victims have been officially documented. These included 37,000 toddlers and infants, 46,000 school-aged children, 55,000 disabled ex-servicemen, invalids and nurses, Red Cross assistants and nursing personnel, 12,000 rescue workers, firemen, orderlies, air-raid assistants and air-raid police. Also, in light of the fact that at the time of the attacks Dresden was crowded with 1,200,000 people [including some 600,000 refugees], and that more than 70,000 bombs were dropped by 9,000 fighter bombers, it is quite absurd to speak of 35,000 dead [or even 135,000]. Just consider the ratio of one bomb per two city inhabitants!"

(Translated from: Juan Maler, "Die Unvollendete", Buenos Aires 1991)

In this context, it is also important to note the following information regarding the death toll of the Dresden civilians, and it cannot be stressed enough that these deaths were caused by the British and American terrorist air raid of February 13-14, 1945, at a time when the outcome of the war had already been decided.

The "official" number of 35,000 victims - an insult to the dead! - is specified by the relevant police protocol to refer to those bodies that could be identified.

The city center of Dresden was turned to ash. Experts estimate that another 200,000 to 300,000 people were crushed, suffocated and incinerated in the air-raid shelters-turned-crematoria under the masses of rubble, scorched to ash by the 800°C firestorm and 290 km/h wind.

The fact is that 900,000 food ration cards were issued before the catastrophe, whereas the official 1946 population statistic of Dresden showed 486,000 living inhabitants. The vast numbers of refugees who died (all of the city's buildings were overcrowded with refugees from Silesia) are largely disregarded in these figures. Furthermore, Dresden was Germany's largest hospital city. (The German Red Cross had also set up its headquarters there during the war)

The exact number of victims, which some sources estimate at greater than 500,000, will probably never be precisely known. This also explains why the German leadership avoided announcing the magnitude of the death toll so as not to shock the German people even further.

One remark by Reich Propaganda Minister Dr. Göbbels has become known: "How am I going to tell the German people about this?"

In the light of continuing efforts by the United States to keep references to these matters classified, or suppressed, Nazi acquisition of nuclear weapons cannot simply be dismissed out of hand.

There does however appear to have been at least one attempt to attack USA with nuclear weapons when a lone six engined Junkers aircraft was downed in shallow coastal waters south of Owl's Head, Maine about 17-18 September 1944. The bodies of three German aviators were recovered nearby on 28 September 1944 and were taken to the Rockport Coast Guard Station. It appears they were buried nearby with a small stone cairn erected over their grave. Locals were warned by FBI and Secret service never to repeat their sighting to anyone, thus this pivotal attack on USA has gone unnoticed in all these years. Could it be that the failure of Hitler's Last Trump arose not from a failure to build a nuclear weapon, but from the inability to deliver the weapon over its prime target, New York?

The He-177 beset by engine fires from the paired DB 610 engine arrangement developed for its dive-bomber role, gradually evolved into a reliable, though limited aircraft. Ernst Heinkel finally decided to build the aircraft which he ought to have built from the start and after August 1943 developed the twin fin He-277. A short series of seven production aircraft came from the conversion of further He-177 airframes. These finished He-277 B-5 aircraft were in many ways totally superior to America's B-29 and could range over the skies of Europe at altitudes which no Allied fighter could harm them.

One of those airframes became a donor fuselage for the Ju-287 V1 jet bomber.

The Ju-287 V1 was test flown through August to October 1944 when test flying suddenly stopped.

The reason why is evident from what General Walther Dornberger told another General in a bugged conversation at Camp 11 after the war.

Dornberger mentioned that in October 1944 he and Werner von Braun, of V-2 rocket fame went to Lisbon for talks with two officials from General Electric Corporation. Dornberger also says he stayed in touch through December 1944.

Now Dornberger at that time worked for the SS on one of the most top secret Nazi weapons projects, yet he was free to talk with Americans in Lisbon?

However Dorneberger's boss SS Lt General Dr Hans Kammler shielded the Nazi nuclear scientists and Penemünde rocket scientists, smuggling them south to Bavaria where the SS allowed the ALSOS mission to come and collect them.

In October 1944 Gen Leslie Groves removed Germany from the SBS list of nuclear targets for the Manhatten Project. Much more than co-incidence. The German nuclear bomber project was abandoned and test flying of the Ju-287 jet bomber also stopped in October 1944.

Von Braun and Dornberger it seems saved Europe from becoming the world's first nuclear battleground.>

History books are silent on the ultimate fate of He-277 survivors, however an article in the "Washington Post" from 28 June 1945 refers to a collection of 40, ultra long range Heinkel bombers being found at an airfield near Oslo. The article also refers to them being dismantled and removed for study.

The loss of France to Allied forces in 1944 deprived the Luftwaffe of its large French airfields. Norway, however, remained in German hands up until their very surrender, and thus constituted the only remaining base of operations available to the Germans for any type of offensive operation against the North American continent.

It is known that a project was developed in Norway to fit He-177 airframes with wings developed for the Me-264, the He-274 intended as a high altitude bomber capable of a mission to New York. It had far less parts in common with the He-177 than the He-277. 

It is unclear whether the gathering of 40 long range "Heinkel" bombers in Norway by the end of WW2 refers to this He-177 hybrid, or surviving He-277 aircraft or both types.

Artist's wartime rendering of the He-277 B-5


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