Hans Kammler Hans Kammler

Anybody familiar with Nazi Germany will be familiar with Himmler, Speer, Bormann and such but few have ever heard of Hans Kammler. Kammler was a General in the SS, rather an accomplishment any way you look at it. Kammler "was regarded by many in the Nazi hierarchy as the most powerful man in Germany outside the Cabinet." ("Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia", by Tom Agoston, Dodd, Mead & Co.)

Kammler, whose position of authority was directly under Himmler, was in charge of Hitler's most secret projects, specifically projects such as the world's first jet engines and rockets. He had over 14 million people working for him, mostly building underground factories. Agoston said his projects were equivalent to being in charge of building the Great Pyramids or the Coliseum in Rome. Speer said that he believed that Kammler was being considered to take his (Speer's) position.

Albert Speer, in his book "Spandau, The Secret Diaries" brags that it was he who ordered Werner Heisenberg to stop building an atomic bomb and concentrate on a "Uranium motor" for aircraft. Towards the end of the war, Hitler even made Göring and Speer subordinate to Kammler. Eisenhower admits in "Crusade In Europe" that the Nazis were within 6 months of developing advanced weapons that would have changed the outcome of the war.

Hans Kammler

The SS began simply as Hitler's body guard. From humble beginnings it was transformed into the most powerful entity within the Third Reich after Hitler himself. The military arm of the SS, the Waffen SS, became the most elite military force in Germany. The SS also took over many research, development and production facilities from the Army and Air Force. The SS took over control of civilian research and development facilities. The SS began taking facilities and power away from Albert Speer's Ministry of Arms and the RLM headed by Hermann Göring.

As the war progressed, the SS organized, built and ran many underground manufacturing facilities. They even appropriated the huge industrial firm, the Skoda Works, its subsidiaries and related firms, centered near Prague, for their in-house projects The SS became an empire within an empire answerable only to Adolf Hitler. The SS also set up special research facilities for politically unreliable scientists. Research projects arose within these facilities which were in part staffed by technical people drawn from the prisoner pool. Such facilities were set up at Oranieburg, Nordhausen, Mechlenburg and Mauthausen.

As the SS rose within Germany, so did the fortunes of Doctor of Engineering, General Hans Kammler. Kammler seems to come into prominence through his talent at designing and building massive underground facilities. Soon Kammler was placed, by Hitler, in charge of V-weapons [Vergeltungswaffen]. This means Kammler was in charge of the facilities at Peenemünde and Nordhausen. He was Dr. and General Walther Dornberger's boss who, in turn was Dr. Wernher von Braun's boss. Further, Kammler headed up an advanced research and development group, associated with the Skoda Works, called the Kammler Group. This group held the most advanced technical secrets of the Third Reich.

During post-war questioning, when asked for details concerning V-weaponry, Albert Speer told Allied interrogators to ask Kammler these questions. [Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee Evaluation Report Number 53(b)]. 

Not one single follow-up question was put to Speer about Kammler.

Neither did they ever ask Kammler, because he had disappeared. Kammler was no fool. Wherever he went he undoubtedly took copies,  microfilmed in the final days, of the most advanced German technology. Numerous countries would have dealt with Kammler, regardless of his past. This includes the U.S.A.

Dr. Arthur Rudolf (Wernher von Braun's combustion chamber expert) was persecuted for his alleged use of slave labor at Nordhausen when, in fact, he was not in charge of slave labor.

No search was ever made for General Kammler, although he was  in charge of all SS slave labor in the Reich, which he extensively employed in his projects.

Did Kammler do a secret deal with an Allied government, exchanging information for a new identity? Or did Kammler escape Allied clutches to some safe haven such as South America?

It is known that the Nazis set up shop in large, secure tracts of land between Chile and Argentina. Many post-war stories involve German scientists relocating in South American countries formerly friendly to the Nazis and there building and flying German saucers.

Several prominent Nazi aeronautical specialists were invited to the nation to pursue continued aircraft development including such famous German designers as Raimar Horten and Kurt Tank of Focke-Wulf. There, Horten worked on a flying wing and several Delta aircrafts while Tank worked on the Pulqui II jet fighter that resembled to some degree the Fw Ta 183 Huckebein while designing several other aircraft.

"Sightings" began in the skies over Argentina and in Argentine waters right after World War II - sightings of strange aerial discs and mystery subs that looked a lot like the last German Type XXVI that were laid down before the war ended. These sightings were pre-Kenneth Arnold and pre-Roswell.

The "Maquina de la Metanza" (Machine of Killing/Slaughter) as it became nown was first spotted in the late 1950s. It is reported as being much larger than any German disc type every built in the Third Reich and resembles a floating stepped-pyramid fortress.

It was nicknamed “Disco Metanza” after a supposed test of the immense craft’s defense armament in Patagonia where it slaughtered hundreds of cattle in an "Experimento de la Vaca“ (Bovine Experiment).

Apparently the moving fortress turned the earth red with blood and shook it at low level with such intensity that it felt like a small magnitude earthquake. The Argentine villagers were terrified of this giant menace, but this is the only detailed account ever given.

Metanza Data:

Type: Reported Haunebu-Vril configuration
Diameter: 240 meters (approx. estimate)
Height: 60 meters (approx. estimate)
Configuration details: Floating pyramid-shape layered armored fortress
Location: Andes Mountains, Argentina

General Dr Hans Friedrich Karl Franz Kammler (26 August 1901 – April 1945?) was an engineer and high-ranking officer of the SS. He oversaw SS construction projects, and towards the end of World War II was put in charge of the V-2 missile programme.

He was the last SS officer in Nazi Germany to receive a promotion to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer with date of rank from 1 March 1945.

Kammler was born in Stettin, Germany. In 1919, after volunteering for army service, he served in the Rossbach Freikorps . From 1919 to 1923 he studied civil engineering in Munich and Danzig. He joined the NSDAP in 1932 and held a variety of administrative positions when the Nazi government came to power, initially in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM - Aviation Ministry). In 1940 he joined the SS, where from 1942 he worked at designing facilities for the extermination camps, including gas chambers and crematoria. Kammler eventually became Oswald Pohl's Deputy in the WVHA (Reich Administrative and Economic Main Office), which oversaw Amtsgruppe D (Amt D), the Administration of the concentration camp system, and was also Chief of Amt C, which designed and constructed all of the concentration and extermination camps.

From 1919 to 1923, Hans Kammler  studied civil engineering at the Technische Hochschule der Freien Stadt Danzig and Munich, and was awarded his Dr. Ing. in November 1932, following some years of practical work in local building administration.

Kammler eventually became Oswald Pohl's deputy at the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt [WVHA], which oversaw Amtsgruppe D, the Administration of the concentration camp system, and was also Chief of Amt C, which designed and constructed all of the concentration and extermination camps. In this latter capacity he oversaw the installation of cremation facilities at Auschwitz-Birkenau, as part of the camp's conversion to an extermination camp.

What results were reached by Doctor of Engineering Hans Kammler when extermination facilities were concerned?

As soon as extermination facilities were concerned, Doctor of Engineering Kammler instantly became a total moron making the inventors of the German delousing gas chambers look like geniuses and finding nothing more efficient than small individual crematory ovens similar to the ones found in civilian cemeteries. That man was able to lead programmes resulting in never seen before inventive weapons. But he was unable to conceive efficient 'gas chambers' and crematories. He allegedly worked at designing extermination facilities for the 'extermination camps' but he simply 'forgot' to install crematory ovens in the Reinhardt camps. Amazing, isn't it?

In fact the Soviets made one of Topf engineers, Fritz Sander,  "confess" on 21 March 1946  that he had invented a new super crematory oven which had been installed at Auschwitz but then destroyed, nowhere to be found at the end of WW2, and not mentioned by any of the tens of thousands of Auschwitz 'survivors' liberated by the Allied armies..

Following the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, Heinrich Himmler assigned him to overseeing the demolition of the ghetto in retaliation.

 

Kammler was also charged with constructing facilities for various secret weapons projects, including manufacturing plants and test stands for the Messerschmitt Me 262 and V-2. Following the Allied bombing raids on Peenemünde in "Operation Hydra" on 17 August 1943, Kammler was assigned to moving these production facilities underground, which resulted in the Mittelwerk facility and its attendant concentration camp complex, Mittelbau-Dora, which housed slave labour for constructing the factory and working on the production lines.
 
During this period, Kammler also was involved in the attempt to finish the Blockhaus d'Éperlecques known also as the Watten Bunker, a rather unsuccessful project to create a fortified V-2 launch base.

 

He was also assigned to the construction of facilities at Jonastal and Riesengebirge for nuclear weapons research and at Ebensee to develop a V-2 derived ICBM.

In 1944, Himmler convinced Hitler to put the V-2 project directly under SS control, and on 6 August replaced Walter Dornberger with Kammler as its director. From January 1945, he was placed as head of all missile projects and just a month later was given charge of all German aerospace programs as these came under SS authority as well.

Disappearance

In April 1945, Kammler disappeared. Some reports suggest that he was assassinated by a member of his staff, acting on orders from Himmler not to allow personnel with detailed knowledge of the rocket programme to fall into Allied hands. Others indicate that he may have been killed in action or committed suicide somewhere around Prague. The fact that his exact fate is unknown and that his body was never recovered led to some speculation that he continued his work in the United States after the war, where it is alleged he worked on anti-gravity and other advanced devices.

Agostan's book details all FOUR of the supposed death scenarios of Hans Kammler. These may well have been simply misdirection.

A recent (2001) book by Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point" investigates the possibility that Kammler was brought to the United States along with many other German scientists as part of the program known as "Operation Paperclip" (Christopher Simpson, "Blowback").

There are no known facts that support this theory. There have been no "Kammler sightings" since the end of the war, contrary to the cases of other Nazi war criminals such as Bormann and Mengele. In addition, Kammler was not a physicist or rocket engineer. He was primarily an administrator and as such would have few skills of value to the Americans.

There is a trail of evidence that indicates in the closing days of the Reich that Kammler used a long-range multi-engined aircraft to ship a large body of research material and prototypes out of the Reich. The book documents much of this evidence.

References to Kammler in the official literature relating to the Nuremberg trials have been deleted
. In fact, despite the knowledge that Kammler was, in many ways, number three in the Nazi hierarchy in 1945, his name only comes up once, in an indirect reference by Dornberger, during the war crimes trials, including the trial of his subordinates in December 1957 in Arnsberg, Westphalia.

The failed attempt to kill Hitler on 20 July 1944 caused a violent purge of the German Army officers, including the head of Army armaments Friedrich Fromm, who had the misfortune of being the commanding officer of Lt. Col. Klaus Von Stauffenberg, the man who left the briefcase bomb in the conference room. Himmler assumed the imprisoned Fromm's duties, and the leadership of the Rocket program soon passed from the best of Germany's Prussian military tradition, represented by Walter Dornberger, to its worst. Himmler soon appointed a favorite 'rising star' in the organization, SS Major Hans Kammler, to run the rocket program.

On 1 March 1945 Kammler placed a young volunteer Luftwaffe test pilot,  Lieutenant Lothar Sieber, inside a Bachem Ba 349 'Natter', which was a small piloted missile. Sieber the first man to take off vertically from the ground under pure rocket power, some 16 years before Yuri Gagarin's 'Vostok 1' pioneering, peacetime orbital flight. The honor was a brief one.

Around 11:00 am, the 'Natter' was ready for take-off. Low stratus clouds lay over the Ocksenkopf. The Walter HWK 109-509 A1  motor built up to full thrust and Sieber pushed the button to ignite the four solid boosters. With a roar, the piloted missile rose out of a cloud of steam and rocket smoke straight up, displaying its camouflage paintwork. At an altitude of about 100 to 150 m (330 to 490 ft), the Natter suddenly pitched backwards into an inverted curve. Initially it climbed at about 30° to the vertical. At about 500 m (1,600 ft) the cockpit canopy was seen to fly off. The Natter continued to climb at high speed at an angle of 15° from the horizontal and disappeared into the clouds. The Walter motor stalled about 15 seconds after take-off. It is estimated the Natter reached 1,500 m (4,900 ft), at which point it nose-dived and hit the ground with great force about 32 seconds later, some kilometres from the launch site.

Bachem surmised Sieber had involuntarily pulled back on the control column under the effect of the 3 G acceleration. Examination of the canopy, which fell near the launch site, showed the tip of the latch was bent, suggesting it may not have been in the fully closed position at launch. The pilot's headrest had been attached to the underside of the canopy and as the canopy flew off the pilot's head would have snapped back suddenly about 25 cm (9.8 in), hitting the solid wooden rear upper cockpit bulkhead, and either knocking Sieber unconscious or breaking his neck, ending this inglorious debut for manned vertical rocket flight.

This tragedy reinforced Bachem's long held belief that the take-off and flight in the vicinity of the target bombers should be fully automated.

From Tom Agoston, "Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia"

SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. (Doctor of Engineering) Hans Kammler, now little known to popular history, architect of the infamous Auschwitz death camps, responsible for the demolition of the Warsaw ghetto, and by the end of the war, the Third Reich's plenipotentiary for all secret weapons research, responsible directly to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and to Adolf Hitler himself…….

Kammler boasted almost the perfect "corporate resume" and a documentable record of "whole person management" as a "team player":

A modern day management consultant who was talent hunting for a "total professional with total involvement" would certainly have been fascinated by the bizarre curriculum vitae Kammler could have submitted. He could demonstrate a "track record" in "very senior appointments," with skill in putting across "aggressive growth plans."...

In the Third Reich, within a span of a few years, the number of positions he had held in turn was phenomenal.


Among these "senior appointments" Kammler once commanded were:


(1) Operational control of the V-l and V-2 terror bombardments of
London, Liege, Brussels, Antwerp and Paris;

(2) Operational control of all missile production and research, including the V-2 and the intercontinental ballistic missile. the A9/10;

(3) Design and construction oversight of the world's "first bombproof underground aircraft and missile factory sites," including sites for the production of jet engines and the Messerschmitt 262;

(4) command of the SS Building and Words Division, the department which handled all large construction projects for the Reich, including death camps, "Buna factories," and supply roads for invading German legions in Russia;

(5) Design and construction of the world's first underground testing and proving range for missiles;

(6) Command, control and coordination of all of the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the war's end.


This warped and twisted administrative genius first came to the attention of Himmler and Hitler "with a brilliant hand-colored design for the Auschwitz concentration camp, which he subsequently built. Later he was called in to advice on the modalities for boosting the daily output of its gas chambers from 10,000 to 60,000."

 

All this is to say that not only was Kammler a butcher, but that by the war's end, Hitler had "concentrated more power in Kammler's hands than he had ever entrusted to a single person," bar none. If one were to compare Kammler's position to a similar hypothetical position in the former Soviet Union, such a position would mean that the general who (commanded) the SS-20 rockets in Europe and Asia (the Commander in Chief of Strategic Rocket Forces) would also head research, development, and production of missiles. In addition, he would be in charge of producing all modern aircraft for the Red Air Force and have overall command of the mammoth civil engineering projects or the production centers in Siberia's sub-zero climate. Last, but very much not least, he would lead the national grid of gulags. To match Kammler's position in the SS, the Soviet general holding all these variegated commands would also be third in the KGB pecking order.

 

Indeed, one would have to add to Agoston's list, for such a Soviet general would also have had to be in charge of the coordination of all the most post-nuclear and super secret advanced scientific research and black projects in the entire Soviet Union

 

It is thus in the person of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler that all the lines meet: the Buna factory and slave labor of the camps, exploited for grizzly medical experimentation and labor in the secret underground laboratories and production facilities, the atom bomb project, and as will be seen in the subsequent parts of this book, even more horrendous and monstrous aircraft and weapons development. If there was a gold mine of information, then it was available in the blueprints and files that were locked in Kammler's vaults, or even more securely in his brain. It is this fact and Kammler's extraordinary dossier that make his post-war fate even more problematical.

The Four Deaths of SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler

General Kammler, in addition to his "accomplishments" in streamlining death camp efficiency, his methodical and efficient leveling of the ruined Warsaw Ghetto and meticulous accounting of every last brick and stone removed, his coordination of the most arcane, and perhaps the biggest, secret weapons black projects program in human history, has also another odd distinction to his credit. He of all the high-ranking Nazis indicted and tried at Nuremberg either posthumously or in absentia, was never formally indicted, much less brought to trial. He is altogether missing from the docket, and altogether just simply missing. Kammler has yet another distinction. He appears to have been not only a very accomplished messenger of death for others, but also appears to have achieved the astonishing feat of having died himself no less than four times, each under different circumstances. Agoston commented at length on the odd assortment of "facts" surrounding Kammler's fate: brainchild of none other than Martin Bormann. The purpose of this special command was to evacuate... something. Cook reports that one of these enormous Ju 390s simply went missing at the end of the war.

Analysis of the voluminous documentation as has accrued, shows crude discrepancies, the inconsistencies of which grow with almost every addition to the mosaic of information that enters the picture Basically three major facts stand out:


1. In almost four decades, official records show no positive confirmation of Kammler's death. No court of law, no media editor would accept the uncorroborated statement of "unknown comrades," still so referred to in official records as conclusive evidence of death especially if the death was alleged to have taken place in the chaos of collapsing Germany.

2. The record shows no subsequent sworn corroborative statement. Such a statement would automatically have been entered in the Red Cross and other dossiers on Kammler.
3. None of the persons reporting any of the four versions of the general's death had conformed with the prescribed duty of all servicemen to detach one-half of a dead man's soldier's paybook or officer's identity document, to the nearest unit, relevant records office, Red Cross, or holding power, if the surviving serviceman had become a prisoner of war, to help notification of next of kin. Germans are traditionally meticulous and, to say the least, most sentimental in such matters.

 

Thus, in spite of "the proliferation of unsubstantiated evidence that permeates all four versions of Kammler's death, the shell of the case contains sufficient facts to suggest a more than coincidental pattern of seemingly targeted and organized disinformation." The origin of this disinformation, according to Agoston, was probably within the SS itself, a program necessitated by Kammler's disappearance and likely treason to one of the victorious Allied powers.


The "first death of General Hans Kammler" is recounted by Albert Speer himself, in his last book. In this most simple version, Kammler ordered his adjutant to shoot him. The "suicide" allegedly took place in Prague as Kammler realized the war was lost and, according to Speer, "acted in elitist SS loyalty." As Agoston quips, "even the most ardent worshipper of Teutonic creed could not possibly suggest that elitist SS loyalty can be demonstrated three times, in three locations, and all on the same day."

The second version of the story, related to Agoston by Kammler's "civilian" aide Dr. Wilhelm Voss, was that the general took cyanide somewhere "on the road between Pilsen and Prague on May 9."

The third version of Kammler's death was doled out by V-2 rocket expert, General Walter Dornberger, subsequently employed by the American firm of Bell Aerospace. According to Dornberger, Kammler's mental and emotional state had quickly deteriorated in the final days of the war, and the general overheard Kammler ordering his aide to shoot him if things became "hopeless." But this does not square with Dornberger's close associate, Dr. Wernher Von Braun's own recollection of a conversation he overheard between Kammler and his aide Starck fully two weeks later.


According to von Braun, Kammler and Starck discussed the possibility of "going underground" before the Americans arrived, disguising themselves as monks in a nearby abbey.This report, if true, is perhaps the most interesting, since it indicates that Kammler had no intentions of surrendering himself to any of the Allied powers, but rather, intended to survive, perhaps independently continuing his oversight of secret weapons development.

Another version of Kammler's death has him giving a speech to his assembled aides in Prague in early May 1945, dismissing them from their duties and advising them to return home, and then walking into a woods where he then shot himself.

And lastly, there is a version of Kammler's death that has him dying a typical SS hero's death, fighting and going down in a blaze of "glory" in the face of rebelling and revolting Czechs.

What emerges from all this is that no one, no where can advance anything like a consistent account of the date, location, time, or even method of Kammler's death. Now it is suicide by poison, then suicide by gunshot, suicide by ordering an aide to shoot him, a fighting death, or disappearance into a Roman Catholic monastery. Now he is in Prague, now he isn't; now he's with people, now he isn't; now he's suffering mental and emotional collapse, now he isn't.

In all likelihood, therefore, Kammler did not die at all; he disappeared. The important question is, where?

Joseph Farrell's book, "The SS Brotherhood of the Bell", avers that the Nazis made almost science fiction-like technological breakthroughs during WW II, having to do with exotic, high-energy mercury plasmas, and the engineering of the vacuum or aether,  with implications for UFO-like antigravity technology, new generations of scalar weaponry, time travel and more, based on a nonlinear conception of physics, a vorticular physics of the internal rotational stress of space itself. Farrell makes an intriguing case that R&D work on this technology centered on construction of a device known as The Bell (die Glocke). This project has also been earlier discussed in the books, "The Hunt For Zero Point", by British aerospace writer, Nick Cook, and "The Truth About The Wunderwaffe", by Polish military journalist, Igor Witkowski. The evidence indicates that the Bell R&D project was under the command of a Top Secret SS cell called FEP. This FEP-SS Cell, oddly enough, was under the direction of Kriegsmarine Konteradmiral Wilhelm Rhein, who was Chief of Office Group for Research, Invention and Patenting, Naval Weapons Head Office, OKM from 1 September 1942 - 8 May 1945, which clearly intimates some degree of involvement of the German war-time Navy in the Bell project. However, the actual work on the “Bell” project itself was apparently directed by an SS General Emil Mazuw, about whom very little is known, albeit that he was one of the highest ranking Nazi officers in the Third Reich.

Another important figure, SS General Hans Kammler, also is reported to have had a high-level connection to the Bell project. Kammler was no ordinary SS officer. He was in charge of concentration camp design and construction during the war. He was also tasked with the construction of production facilities for secret weapons programs, and with moving V-2 and V-1 missile production underground to the Mittelwerk facility in the southern Harz mountains near Nordhausen in the last year of the war. During the war Kammler was in charge of special construction projects for Albert Speer, special buildings for Hermann Göring, and for most of the last year of the war was in charge of the V-2 project, taking it over from SS General Walter Dornberger. This is the same V-2 program for which Wernher von Braun was the principle rocket scientist and engineer. At war's end SS General Hans Kammler seems to have vanished into thin air, along with the Bell itself. There is speculation that the both of them were perhaps secretly flown away to the USA and/or South America, or even another, unknown destination.

Most of the "Bell" project took place in Lower Silesia. Notably, much of the most important work took place underground, beneath Fürstenstein castle. It is highly likely that the exotic technology R&D of the Nazis continued in underground bases in the USA and probably also in other regions of the world.

Nazi Germany had its own Los Alamos with 120 nuclear scientists and a secret hidden nuclear project called Complex Riese.

The Riesenbirge underground complex, or "Complex Riese", home to two top secret SS research groups, SS-E-IV and SS-U-13, consisted of 195,000 sq metres of tunnels and ten underground complexes. These tunnels were located mainly south east from modern day Walbrzych (nee Waldenberg) in the Owl Mountains with the main tunnels based around Osowka (nee Sauferhohen) and Wlodarz (nee Wolfsberg). This complex was south of Swdnica (nee Schweidniz). Three nearby tunnels are located at Rzeczka, Jugowice and Sobon.

To the north there were two airstrips near Swdnica and four airstrips near Klodzko. Within a 30 kilometre radius. All these airstrips remained in German hands until early May 1945. 

Slave labour was provided from the Gross Rosen KZ camps scattered southeast of Bad Charlottenbrunn (nowadays called Jedlina Zdro).  Several smaller camps were set up specifically to provide labour for specific tunnels. A document by architect Siegfried Schmelcher, entitled "Geheime Reichssache 91/44"gives an overview of the complex.

Although Kammler was ultimately in charge as the Plenipotentiary for Science, strictly speaking the Riese complex was under SS Obergruppenführer Emil Mazuw who died peacefully as a civilian in 1987. Nobody to my knowledge has ever thought to explore archives of interviews with Mazuw.

These camps comprised 4 major camps and 12 satellite camps. SS Guards were controlled by SS Obersturmbahnführer Karl Belbo and the camp complex was under Standartenführer Albert Lütkemeyer.

More concrete was used on constructing Complex Riese between September 1943 and February 1945 than in all the air raid shelters and Flak towers, built within Germany. Armoured trains from Prague kept a constant shuttle of supplies.

Other more isolated tunnels are also located at Zamek Kslaz, north of Walbrzych near castle Fürstenstein. This particular tunnel appears to have been intended as an alternative Führer headquarters, but never saw use as such.

In 1943, the “Organisation Todt” moved into the 13th century Castle Fürstenstein [Ksiàý] to use it as their base of operations.

Extensive restructuring began to prepare the castle for its role within 'Komplex Riese'. 35 architects were hired for this part of the project.

At the instigation of the authorities terraces and water conduits were destroyed, granite portals smashed, stucco removed and furniture as well as paintings taken away. The rooms gained the rough appearance typical for Nazi architecture.

Huge tunnels with a total length of up to 2 kilometres were hewn into the bedrock beneath the castle. It is assumed that a railway from Lubiechow to the castle was planned. In front of the castle, a 50 metre elevator shaft was dug (the elevator itself was never installed, however).

Initially, restructuring work was done by civil workers from Italy; later, prisoners from 'Außenlager Riese' who were kept near the castle, were used. About 3,000 people worked on the restructuring of Castle Fürstenstein.

It has been claimed that the castle was outfitted and excavated to become an abode for Adolf Hitler.

 

Kammler was also head of the SS evacuation command which, from March 1945,  used a number of armoured trains to evacuate tons of top secret Luftwaffe secret technology documents from tunnels under Fürstenstein Castle  to Linz, Austria where US Forces scooped up the documents. One of these armoured Trains is said to have simply disappeared at the end of the war. Another of Kammlers's tasks was the controversial evacuation in April 1945 of a device codenamed 'Die Glocke' and also referred to as the Nazi Bell device, using a Junker Ju-390 for an evacuation flight to Norway. 

After the war Org Todt's tunnel construction manager Xaver Dorsch gave Soviet investigators tours through the Fürstenstein tunnels and many incredible accounts for the use of these tunnels. Much of the surviving knowledge comes from Xaver Dorsch, but some also accused him of creating disinformation.

 

Franz Xaver Dorsch (24 December 1899 – 8 November 1986)  enrolled as a student of civil engineering at the Technische Hochschule Stuttgart, now the University of Stuttgart, in 1919, and qualified as an architect in 1928. From 1929 to 1933 he worked with Fritz Todt, later to become the founder of the Organisation Todt, at the Munich engineering firm of Sager und Wörner.

Both men were early supporters of Adolf Hitler. Dorsch joined the embryonic Nazi Party and its paramilitary wing, the Sturmabteilung, in 1922 and he participated in the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch of 8–9 November 1923. He was later entitled to wear the Golden Party Badge and the Blood Order of the Nazi Party in recognition of his early service. In July 1933, Todt was appointed by Hitler as the Generalinspektor für das deutsche Straßenwesen ("Inspector General for German Roadways"), charged with the task of building the German Autobahn network. Todt recruited Dorsch to serve as his Deputy and Leiter (head) of the OT Zentrale office in Berlin, working on the Autobahn project. In 1938 Dorsch played a leading role in the building of the Siegfried Line (known as the Westwall in German), a vast defence system stretching more than 630 kilometres (390 mi) along German's western borders from the Netherlands to Switzerland.

From December 1941 he directed the construction of the Atlantic Wall along the western coastline of occupied Europe, though his work was criticised by the military for ignoring input from the Army and Navy. On 8 February 1942 Fritz Todt was killed in an air crash. He was replaced by Albert Speer, Hitler's chief architect. Speer retained overall control of the OT as Minister of Armaments and War Production but gave Dorsch the authority to run it as he saw fit, in effect making him the operational chief of the OT. In recognition of his service, Dorsch was awarded the Knight's Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords on 13 May 1943.

However, the relationship between Speer and Dorsch was strained. A major bone of contention was the fact that the OT only had responsibility for building projects outside the Reich. It was now increasingly being employed for construction work at home and needed to have control of the domestic construction industry. Dorsch and Speer fought a bitter battle over the issue, with Dorsch demanding that he be put in charge of all building activity inside the Reich so that new projects could be managed by the OT. Dorsch was secretly an ally of Speer's arch-enemy, Martin Bormann, who recruited him as an agent of the Parteikanzlei (the Nazi Party head office) to spy on Speer; as Speer later put it, Dorsch made him feel "insecure in my own Ministry". In the spring of 1944, Dorsch instigated a move to oust Speer; although he was unsuccessful, Speer's position was seriously weakened.

Hitler took command of the OT away from Speer and gave it to Dorsch in April 1944. Dorsch was invited to submit proposals for a scheme, which Speer vigorously opposed, to move German industrial facilities into "concrete factories" or underground facilities to protect them from Allied bombing. Hermann Göring, the Reich Minister of Aviation, also ordered Dorsch to undertake the construction of underground aircraft hangars for the Luftwaffe. Dorsch was put in charge of the armaments ministry's building office and served as the minister's deputy as general commissioner for construction industry matters, as well as retaining his existing post as the head of the OT. He was thus in charge of virtually all the Third Reich's building projects in the final year of the war. Hitler's directive to build bombproof factories gave Dorsch the authority he needed to take control of the whole German construction industry and by September 1944 he controlled a workforce of 780,000 people, mostly forced labourers from abroad, who were engaged in construction projects within the Reich.

Dorsch avoided prosecution following the war and was commissioned by the United States Army to write a 1,000-page study of the Organisation Todt, which was published in 1947. In 1950, he set up the firm of "Reg.Baumeister Xaver Dorsch, Ingenieurbüro" which became the consulting engineering company Dorsch Consult in 1951 and Dorsch Gruppe in 2006. The company now employs 1,600 people and is Germany's largest independent planning and consulting company.

Uranium and Thorium bearing deposits immediately south of the Riese complex were mined at Gluszyca. Xaver Dorsch claimed the tunnels were part of a nuclear weapons project which employed 180 scientists from Denmark and Norway.

3648 forced labourers are known to have died from exhaustion or disease. A further 857 were deported to Auschwitz. This camp was evacuated in February 1945. Soviets captured the area in mid May 1945. Nazi Werewolf units kept fighting from the forests until many months after the war finished.

Other tunnels around Osowka, particularly Wolfsberg were deliberately sealed, or flooded in the final weeks of the war by SD and SS personnel.  

Thorium deposits were mined quite close to the Riese tunnel complex at Wüstegiersdorf [now Gluzyca]. 120 Danish and Norwegian nuclear scientists were employed at the site and 63 are said to have been executed by the SS at the end of the war to keep secret the research conducted there. One secret project at the complex relates to a new fighter plane called the V-7.

Construction of this underground Manzano Base, just southeast of Albuquerque, New Mexico began in June 1947, the same year the CIA was established, and the same year of the so-called 'Roswell UFO crash' and retrieval.

Project Paperclip memos specifically called for Xaver Dorsch and three other Nazi technicians to assist with the USAF's 'Underground Plant Program'. The Manzano Base was one of the USA military's first, major deep underground bases. Begun shortly after WW II. The other was at what is now Fort Hood, near Killeen, Texas. The fact that this base was begun at precisely the same time [1947] that Project Paperclip requested Xaver Dorsch is surely no accident. He was perhaps the premier expert in the world at that time on major, underground base construction, having been explicitly tasked with that duty by Adolf Hitler in the closing months of WW II. He may very well have also been secretly brought to New Mexico under Project Paperclip to assist with the Manzano Base construction - there is the 1947 memorandum asking for him, he was in American military detention after the war, the Manzano Base was begun in mid-1947, and scores of other Paperclip Nazis were working in New Mexico at that time. The circumstantial evidence therefore points in that direction.

In addition to being an underground nuclear weapons storage and assembly factory,  the Manzano Base was also a Presidential underground shelter during the Eisenhower administration.

There are rumours that the Manzano Base also includes an subterranean air base for jet fighters that can be scrambled from an underground runway and launched right from the side of the mountain through a camouflaged opening, and there have been documented UFO activity in and around the Manzano Base in past years.

The Manzano Base must be considered a prime candidate to be the underground UFO base depicted in the 1955 LOOK Magazine UFO article, because it is located in western, mountainous terrain, covered by a coniferous forest that closely resembles the illustration that accompanies the LOOK article.

There are also underground facilities beneath White Sands Missile Range, where the Operation Paperclip Nazis worked.

The
Nazi Paperclip scientists, engineers and technicians who were first brought to the USA in 1945 with Wernher von Braun were brought to Fort Bliss, in west Texas, north of El Paso, where they were housed as they worked at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico, with V-2 rocket technology for the American military, assembling and test firing V-2 rockets that had been brought over from Germany at war's end. 

After leaving Fort Bliss, Texas and the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, Wernher von Braun and his team were sent to the Redstone Arsenal at Huntsville, Alabama, to continue working.

There were 1950s-era plans by the U.S. Army to build a large underground rocket base beneath Green Mountain, near Huntsville, Alabama, a period when Wernher von Braun and his team were at Redstone Arsenal. This was also the period where the USA military was really ramping up its post-WW II program of major, underground base construction, and the U.S. Army no doubt wanted Wernher von Braun and his team to have the same facility to work with that they had in Germany, during the Third Reich. During the last year of the war, V-1 and V-2 rocket production had been moved underground into the Mittelwerk production facility in the southern Harz Mountains. The Pentagon was simply mimicking the Third Reich's playbook. Hitler had had an underground rocket factory, and the American generals wanted the same thing. It is not known if Xaver Dorsch was still being debriefed by, or consulting with or for the U.S. Army at that time, but the Pentagon would certainly have gotten detailed information from him about the Nazis extensive underground military and industrial production facilities.


Dr-Ing Hans Kammler had a bargaining chip with the allies in 'Operation Sunrise", the secret surrender negotiated by the OSS with elements of the SS.

Generalleutnant Walter Dornberger stated to  General Fink that Kammler had been ordered by the Führer not to let Braun, Dornberger and the 450 scientists and technicians at Peenemünde fall into Anglo-American hands but to liquidate them all beforehand. It was a huge risk to Kammler's own personal safety to evacuate all the Peenemünde staff in April 1945 to Oberammergau, Bavaria, contrary to Hitler's orders. Why else would Kammler do so unless it was a bargaining chip for negotiations with the OSS [Operation Sunrise].

Members of Kammler's staff claimed he was still alive at Jacin in Czechoslovakia late in April 1945.

Enter into the picture a Junkers Ju-290 A-5 aircraft with constructor's number 110178. This aircraft was withdrawn from Luftwaffe service and rebuilt at Tempelhof into a civil aircraft in September 1944. It was given Deutsche Lufthansa markings and civil serial as D-AITR "Bayern". Conversion was completed October 1944.

Flughauptman Paul Sluzalek flew this aircraft from Prag to exile in Barcelona on 26 April 1945. It had a number of SS personnel aboard whom the Spanish have always refused to identify. Was Kammler a passenger with the blessings of the OSS?

Both SS Lt Gen Hans Kammler and Adolf Eichmann were close to Prag about this same time and both disappeared. Although Eichmann is supposed to have escaped overland to Genoa, there is a very clear possibility that Kammler could have flown out of Prague and just maybe Eichman was with him on that Ju-290.

While everybody has speculated on  the fate of Martin Bormann, the real scandal must be OSS dealings with Kammler.

The suggestion has been frequently made that the UFOs (unidentified flying objects) first reported in the late 1940s were the products of experimental aircraft designs that were developed towards the end of the Second World War. Most (if not all) serious historians would throw up their hands in horror at the very mention of such a seemingly ludicrous idea, particularly when one considers the associated claims that, since sightings of UFOs are still reported today by thousands of people around the world, these radical aircraft designs must have been captured, copied and further developed by the victorious powers; and, what is more, that some UFOs may even be piloted by escaped Nazis operating out of one or more hidden bases.

If the Germans did succeed in producing a piloted flying disc, what became of it? As several researchers have noted, the answer may lie with SS Obergruppenführer Dr Hans Kammler, who towards the end of the war had access to all areas of secret air-armaments projects. Kammler worked on the V-2 rocket project, along with Wernher von Braun (who would later head NASA’s Apollo Moon programme) and Luftwaffe Major General Walter Dornberger (who would later become vice-president of the Bell Aircraft Company in the United States). Heinrich Himmler planned to separate the SS from Nazi Party and state control through the establishment of a number of business and industrial fronts, making it independent of the state budget. Hitler approved this proposal early in 1944. (As Jim Marrs notes, this strategy would subsequently be copied by the CIA in America.) By the end of the war, Hans Kammler had decided to use V-2 rocket technology and scientists as bargaining chips with the Allies. On 2 April 1945, 500 technicians and engineers were placed on a train along with 100 SS troops and sent to a secret Alpine location in Bavaria. Two days later, von Braun requested permission from Kammler to resume rocket research, to which Kammler replied that he was about to disappear for an indefinite length of time. This was the last anyone saw of Hans Kammler. In view of the undoubted advantage he held when it came to negotiating for his life with the Allies, Kammler’s disappearance is something of a puzzle, until we pause to consider the possibility that he possessed plans for a technology even more advanced than the V-2. Did the Reich, or an extension of it, have the capability to produce a UFO or the clout to deal from a position of strength with one of the Allied nations?  Although it is assumed that Kammler committed suicide when about to be apprehended by the Czech resistance in Prague, there is no proof of this. What really happened to Kammler?

-- Alan Baker, "Invisible Eagle"

Agoston had established what no other researcher has managed to before or since

The unique information Agoston had came directly from SS colonel Wilhelm Voss who had become "Kammler's alter ego in the administration of the special projects group." As Kammler was the guy in charge of all the secret weapons operations, Voss was certainly in position to know deep secrets known only to the Nazi elite in the highly compartmentalized military system.

Agoston, who worked as an air photo interpreter and foreign correspondent during wartime, "ran into Voss" when he was in Germany to cover the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Voss then took shelter in Agoston's house, where he would tell the reporter everything. From those interviews conducted in 1949, Agoston learned of the deep black projects, the secrecy of which was beyond any other secret military project. This was the "most advanced high-technology research and development center within the Third Reich":

While Kammler [in charge of Nazi secret weapons projects] carried out his job to the letter, churning out the rockets and jet aircraft that Hitler hoped would turn the tide against the Allies in the closing weeks of the war, he also set up, unbeknownst to anyone connected with those projects, a top secret research center tasked with the development of follow-on technology, a place where work on "second-generation" secret weapons was already well advanced. What Kammler had established was a "special projects office," a forerunner of the entity that had been run by the bright young colonels of the USAF's stealth program in the 1970s and 1980s; a place of vision, where imagination could run free, unfettered by the restraints of accountability. Exactly the kind of place, in fact, you'd expect to find antigravity technology, if such an impossible thing existed.

Voss described the activities of the scientists [in this secret operation] as beyond any technology that had appeared by the end of the war - working on weapon systems that made the V-1 and the V-2 look pedestrian.

During the final phase of the war, Kammler was reportedly scheming to make a deal with the Americans, using his advanced weapons and specialists as leverage. By 18 April 1945, Kammler had disappeared without trace. Did Kammler negotiate successfully with the U.S. to realize his escape from justice? The fact that the U.S. official documents had virtually nothing on this central figure in the technological world of the Reich certainly hinted conversely that Kammler was very important to the U.S. and that the latter had something to hide about him.

Adding to this suspicion was what Voss said about his interview with the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps. When Voss told the agents about Kammler's secret weapons program, he saw that the Americans were not surprised by it and therefore had to conclude that they somehow already had this information. Voss also noted that the agents were simply not interested in finding Kammler. Additionally, it was found that "there were dozens of high-ranking former SS or Party members that had never been called to account. They had simply disappeared. Many of them shared the distinction of having had access to highly advanced technology."

Kammler was a ruthless and powerful SS officer who had committed numerous war crimes. Even Operation Paperclip would have had great trouble importing him into the United States. It probably could have been done under extreme secrecy, but the operation would have been too risky and extensive to appear manageable to U.S. agents - unless, Kammler had something so spectacular that the Americans just had to have, perhaps some exotic technology developed in one of his top-secret projects.

Before the beginning of World War II, there are no indications that Kammler was involved in any advanced engineering projects apart from his educational background. Also, in the early years of the war nothing suggests his involvement in any weapons projects.

Clear links between Kammler and advanced weapon projects seem to appear only in 1942. Early evidence of this is a letter from Oswald Pohl to Heinrich Himmler referring an interdepartmental memorandum on the manufacturing of modern weapons in concentration camps, having Kammler as one of the participants.

On 23 March 1942, Heinrich Himmler issued a letter which approved the establishment of a research and development center of the Waffen SS at the Skoda Works and the weapons plants Brno according to Hitler's orders.  This was the beginning of the activities of the so-called SS-think tank, also called the Kammler Group.

There, it developed  a variety of activities and secret projects, many of which have remained largely unknown. It is well known, however, that one of the tasks of the Kammler Group included a missile test program in an SS-led research center in Pilsen.  Some of these activities were related to the order from Hitler to Kammler, to accomplish the construction of an underground launch site for testing a smaller long-range rocket, which was intended as a prototype of an intercontinental ballistic weapon.

This missile, may have been the V-101.  Under this designation Dr. Büdewald and Dr. Teichmann 1944 began in Branch Příbram of the Skoda company with the development of a solid-propellant rocket.
This three-stage rocket had a length of 30 m and 2.8 m diameter and weighed 140 tons. It is known that the first-stage powder engine was designed for a thrust of 100 tons and its theoretical range was 1800 km at a maximum altitude of 200 km. to ensure that all European destinations would fall within the range of V-101.  Apparently, this performance was much greater than specified in Fritz Hahn's book "Weapons and Secret Weapons of the German Army". We know virtually nothing about the true performance of this V-101 solid rocket because the project documents for this development were seized by the Americans, and have not shown up to date, and there are no documents or pictures of the V-101, although in a document from the former GDR, it is stated that the V-101 has been fully developed in the Skoda plant in Pribran, and tested successfully in Rudisleben, on 16 March 1945 in a launch towards northern Norway. With a 12-kilogram homing system from Siemens, the target was missed by only 6 meters, at a distance of over 2000 kilometers. Due to its solid drive, the V-101 was also better suitable, as opposed to the V2, for use in launching silos.
 
Further proof of the V-101's existence is an American secret report of 19 January 1945 dealing with an estimate of the expected German weapons development in that year. Among other things, it is mentioned, that it was known that there were larger rockets than the V2, and that these might show up in smaller numbers during the following year. They would, however, have a much larger warhead than the V2.  The size of the new rocket was estimated as 68 feet [compared to 45 feet for the V2] indicated, however, the A-9 / A-10 also can not have been indicated.  The 'Amerika' rocket could only carry the same 1 ton explosive charge as the V2 and had a length of 84.7 feet [25.8 m]. It must therefore be asked whether besides the A-9 / A-10 'Amerika' rocket, at  EMW Peenemünde there was also the V-101 'Europa' rocket, at the SS Skoda works in Pilsen.

Kammler was also charged with constructing facilities for various secret weapons projects, including manufacturing plants and test stands for the Messerschmitt Me 262 and V-2. Following the Allied bombing raids on Peenemünde in 'Operation Hydra', in August 1943, Kammler assumed responsibility for the construction of mass-production facilities for the V-2. He started moving these production facilities underground, which resulted in the Mittelwerk facility and its attendant concentration camp complex, Mittelbau-Dora, which housed slave labour for constructing the factory and working on the production lines. The project was pushed ahead under enormous time pressures despite the consequences for the slave laborers employed on it. Kammler's motto at the time was reportedly, "Don't worry about the victims. The work must proceed ahead in the shortest time possible".

During this period, Kammler also was involved in the attempt to finish the Blockhaus d'Éperlecques known also as the Watten Bunker, a rather unsuccessful project to create a fortified V-2 launch base.

Albert Speer  made Kammler his representative for "Special Construction Tasks", expecting that Kammler would commit himself to working in harmony with the ministry's main construction committee. But in March 1944 Kammler had Göring appoint him as his delegate for "Special Buildings" under the fighter aircraft programme, which made him one of the war economy's most important managers, and robbed Speer of much of his influence.

Generically, after the Reich's failure to attain a victory against USSR, Kammler started to answer for an ever-growing amount of projects, most of them related to construction and engineering. Concentration camps, means of mass extermination, factories, labor management, underground facilities of various purposes, and tank construction were some of the hallmarks of his early years in the SS hierarchy. As far as it is known, he also directly supervised several project bureaus and had direct contact with some of the best engineers of the Reich (e.g. Ferdinand Porsche). As a person, he was characterized by one of his subordinates as intelligent, a pure workaholic, completely given to his work, with a fanatic rhythm and demanding the same from everyone else.

In 1944, Himmler convinced Adolf Hitler to put the V-2 project directly under SS control, and on 8 August Kammler replaced Walter Dornberger as its director.  By Führer order, on 31 January 1945, Kammler was appointed head of V1 and V2 production. In March 1945, partially under the advice of Göbbels, Hitler gradually stripped Göring of several powers on aircraft support as well as maintenance and supply while transferring them to Kammler. This culminated, in the beginning of April, by Kammler being raised to Bevollmächtigter des Führers Strahlenforschung (Plenipotentiary of the Führer for rocket and jet-powered weapons research). and : . and in April 1945 was created  During this time he also partially answered for the operational use of the V-2 against the Allies, until the moment the war front reached Germany's borders.

In March 1945, as US forces were advancing through Germany, the slave workers housed in the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp were to be executed as security risks. It is believed that the order for their murder was received by Kammler, but he did not comply with it.

On 1 April 1945, Kammler ordered the evacuation of 500 missile technicians to the Alps. Since the last V-2 on the western front had been launched in late March, on 5 April Kammler was charged by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht to command the defence of the Nordhausen area. However, rather than defend the missile construction works, he immediately ordered the destruction of all the "special V-1 equipment" at the Syke storage site. What exactly this order implied is unclear..


Extract from:
"The Hunt For Zero Point: One Man's Journey To Discover The Biggest Secret Since The Invention Of The Atom Bomb" by Nick Cook

The key man was a German engineer and administrator, Hans Kammler, who began as a civil servant with the Reich Air Ministry but whose ambition led him to the SS, where he became head of the Building and Works divisions that masterminded the concentration camps. Albert Speer, Hitler's Minister for Armaments, noted that Kammler was 'blond, blue-eyed, long-headed, always neatly dressed and well bred ... capable of unexpected decisions at any minute.'

It was the SS, not the Luftwaffe, that controlled Hitler's secret weapons programme and Kammler, a qualified engineer, soon became deeply involved.

He was clever and cruel: 20,000 slave workers died creating the vast galleried complex hacked out under the Harz Mountains in Germany, where Kammler oversaw production of V1 rockets. One day in March 1945, the guards hanged 52 people in Gallery 41, tying a dozen at a time to a beam, which was then pulled up by a crane. Those next in line were forced to watch. These were Kammler's hallmarks.

Kammler rose to the rank of SS General, in charge not only of all aircraft and missile programmes but also his own high powered research and development thinktank. He set up his secret operation in the vast Skoda industrial complex in Czechoslovakia, a country that the SS regarded as its own private domain.

Scientists there were working on weapons systems so futuristic that they made Germany's V1 and V2 rocket bombs look pedestrian. Among these were nuclear power plants for rockets and aircraft, highly sophisticated guided weapons and antiaircraft lasers.

But there was more. A Polish source told me the extraordinary story of 'The Bell'. Experiments had been taking place in a mine close to the Czech border. They involved feeding large doses of electricity into an underground chamber where a bell-shaped device emitted a pale blue light. Five scientists exposed to the device had died of side-effects. Word had it that they were investigating some kind of anti-gravitational effect. The Bell, which was about the height of a man and glowed during testing, was made of hard, heavy metal, filled with a violet mercury-like substance. This metallic liquid was stored in a flask, encased in lead three centimeters thick.

Experiments always took place under a thick ceramic cover and involved the rapid spinning of two cylinders in opposite directions. The chamber in which the experiments took place was deep below ground. Only The Bell itself was preserved after a series of tests, each lasting about one minute. Even the room was destroyed and rebuilt.

Various plants, and animals such as frogs, mice and rats, were exposed to The Bell's sphere of influence. Rapid decay set in and people who helped conduct the experiments suffered from sleep problems, memory loss and muscle spasms. One of the terms used was 'vortex compression'. Another was 'magnetic fields separation'. Both were associated with antigravity.

These secrets were undoubtedly Kammler's ticket to safety once war had ended. By mid April of 1945 Kammler had dropped off the map. He was a leading Nazi, implicated in the Final Solution yet protracted searches in the US National Archives yielded not a single mention. Even the archives at the Imperial War Museum [in London] were of little help, much to the concern of the librarian, who believed that he could have been "red lined" (as in, his files had been removed).

How could this monster, the most powerful individual outside Hitler's inner circle, be so easily forgotten?

It was only as I gazed at the single wartime picture that exists of Kammler in his General's uniform, striding for the camera, his cap with death's head badge enough to one side to betray more than a hint of vanity - that I began to understand. Kammler was fair. Take away the uniform, and he could have been any 40 year old European male. In the chaos of the collapsing Reich, Kammler could have gone anywhere, assumed any persona, and no one would have noticed.

More pictures of Kammler

Kammler, who had moved his HQ to Munich, told Albert Speer he would offer the Americans 'jet planes and rockets'. He also let slip he had 'other developments' up his sleeve.

He probably went east, back to his 'special projects group' in Czechoslovakia, rather than simply wait for the Americans to arrive in Munich. He had a twofold purpose in making his dangerous journey. First, to retrieve the mother lode of documentation and blueprints. And second, to hide it prior to setting up the deal, which would buy his freedom.

Although the Skoda Works were in, the Soviet zone of occupation, US forces had the run of the place for six days before the Red Army turned up.

Plenty of time to remove something you want if you know it is there. Or ignore it, if you have it already. The Americans appeared indifferent to any pointers towards Kammler. Had he already done a deal with the Americans? The answer must be yes.

The Bell was removed by a special SS evacuation team just before the Russians arrived. More than 60 Scientists working on the experiment were then ruthlessly killed to preserve the secrets of the mine. The Bell was shipped out but to where?

One possibility was using one of the northern Adriatic ports that remained in German hands. A U-boat commander could conceivably have run the gauntlet of the Allies to evacuate cargo and personnel by sea. Another possibility was a heavy transport plane used by a special German air force wing and flown under an enemy or neutral flag. Either way, Kammler had the means to move thousands of tons of documentation, equipment and personnel pretty much where he wanted.

June 1945: American forces enter the huge underground complexes at Nordhausen in the Alps. They capture V-1, V-2 and prototype V-4 rockets. Many experimental aircraft are discovered, including disc, and triangular craft. All featured either piston or jet powered forms of propulsion. Allegations have been made about the discovery of blueprints and documents describing an anti-gravity propulsion unit as well as plans for the peacetime exploration of space. At the same time, over 200 of the newest model XXI submarines are missing from their pens. The entire German Bank was missing! (Guinness book of world records lists this as the largest unsolved bank heist in history) Over 2,000 Nazi scientists were missing and almost 200,00 people from the general population were never found. This figure did not include war dead, POW’s and MIA’s already accurately recorded.

At the end of the Second World War, via captured technology from Germany that has never seen the light of day, America acquired knowledge of the most dangerous kind.

Whatever the secrets, of The Bell and other technology, the German secret weapons programme had yielded the ability to design a radically different form of aircraft. A craft that was 'circular or elliptical', made no sound and could turn on a sixpence. And one involving a process, which could also be harnessed to create a weapon more destructive than the hydrogen bomb.

With the help of German-derived science, America's technological lead over the rest of the world accelerated after the war. Kammler's secrets from the Skoda Works had moved 4,000 miles to the west and Kammler had come with it.

The extensive US recruitment programme would have bent over backwards to accommodate Kammler, keeper of the Third Reich's most exotic military secrets.

There is evidence that the Americans did produce such technology. A memo in the archives of the Imperial War Museum, written by Lieutenant General Nathan Twining, head of US Army Air Forces' Air Material Command, a brigadier in USAAF intelligence in September 1947, stated that objects :approximating the shape of a disc, of such appreciable size as to be as large as a manmade aircraft, were neither 'visionary nor fictitious'.

Twining went on to write that it was possible "within the present US knowledge provided extensive detailed development is undertaken to construct a piloted aircraft which has the general description of the object above which would be capable of an approximate range of 7,000 miles..."

His memo was written just three months after the supposed crash of a UFO at Roswell, New Mexico, in July 1947; the period many people tout as the real start of the modern UFO sightings.



Reports of an alien spacecraft being struck by lightning and crashing late at night in early July 1947, near Roswell, New Mexico, were the beginnings of the most compelling event in all UFO lore.

Renowned aviation artist Tony Weddel has depicted the moments before the crash by capturing the object as an alien spacecraft in the initial stages of its death throes.

In freefall, moments after being hit by a lightning upstroke, debris can already be seen in the slipstream.

Seconds later it would careen off the desert floor on the way to its final resting place.

Shedding debris from a fatal wound, its struggle for survival and the lives of seven aliens purportedly ended 40 miles later when it slammed into the wall of an arroyo.

The unusual appearance of the UFO is based on various eyewitness accounts and other sources.
 

Originally reported in the "Fort Worth Star-Telegram" and confirmed by military officials as authentic, the report was later refuted by the military and the crash remains were claimed to be nothing more than a weather balloon.

Area 51 has come to be associated with UFO's.

There are stories that the flying saucer that allegedly crashed at Roswell, New Mexico, had been brought to the Nellis Complex where it was under study.

Not all attempts to produce disc technology were successful. It emerged, during the 1959 hearings of the Space Committee of the US Congress, that the US Department of Defense had been working with the Avro Canada company to develop a 'flying saucer'.

The Avrocar, as it was called, was the brainchild of gifted British engineer John Frost, who had moved to Canada after the war. News leaked as early as 1953, when a Canadian newspaper revealed plans for it to take off and land vertically, and fly at 1,500 mph.

It was easy to see why Avro played down reports of the Avrocar. One look at the prototype, underpowered and unstable, was enough to confirm it would never achieve supersonic flight. It became an aviation joke, which drifted into obscurity. Yet, that may have been the intention.

Recently declassified papers show that Avro was working on a range of flying saucers capable of eclipsing existing jet-fighters. And the US air force had bought Avro's disc-shaped designs for craft called Project Silverbug, capable of almost instant high-speed turns in any direction.




Abbreviated Development Plan, (U)

AVRO Vertical Take-Off Aircraft
Weapon System 606A
USAF Contract # AF33 (600) - 39722
26 June 1959
AVRO Aircraft Ltd, Malton, Ontario, Canada

Were the Americans using the Canadians to perfect the aerodynamics of a flying saucer? Or had the disastrous Avro programme been hushed up to avoid embarrassment? Either way, it showed that man-made flying saucers existed.

There was no golden age, as 'The G-Engines Are Coming!' had predicted. At least, not in the open. But I discovered evidence of mysterious aircraft which chimed with reduced gravity systems.

Since the Eighties, there has been speculation about the existence of a mythical plane called Aurora that supposedly flew on the edges of space. In 1992, there was a detailed sighting of a massive triangular-shaped aircraft spotted flying in formation with US air force bombers above the North Sea.

Although never officially confirmed, "Aurora" was also developed by the Lockheed Skunk Works during the 1980s. The space plane was designed to operate either in a manned or unmanned mode. Its Cold War mission was to penetrate the anti-missile defenses surrounding Moscow at Mach 8+ speeds and deliver nuclear bombs onto multiple targets.

Aurora was described as a very large diamond-shaped vehicle and most likely powered by a hybrid jet-rocket engine technology. The craft could attain speeds in excess of 8,000 miles an hour and fly at altitudes of over 50 miles. was armed with over a dozen nuclear warheads. It was developed to be both manned and unmanned was because of its dual missions - peacetime reconnaissance and wartime nuclear strike vehicle.

During times of peace, the Aurora carried manned crews to supervise surveillance. During wartime, the very powerful Aurora accelerated and changed directions at speeds that would crush a human under the high G forces. Aurora's nuclear strike mission was intended to be without a pilot because a human simply would not survive the ride.

However, Aurora had two great drawbacks: its price tag and its mission.

Aurora reportedly was retired from service in the late 1990s due to budget constraints. Each vehicle reportedly cost over $2 billion. The price of Aurora operations could not be justified when the Cold War ended.

In Belgium, in 1989 and again a year later, hundreds of people reported seeing silent triangular shaped craft all over the country. They were tracked by Belgian radar and pulled turns of about 20G - 40G enough to kill a human pilot. The Belgian air force confirmed their existence in a government report.

I also discovered evidence of the Pentagon's enormous 'black budgets', which finance deeply classified defence programmes.

To those who spend their time scanning reams of dry defense-spending documents, the Black Budget is a well-known bit of excitement. It is the discrepancy that is left when all the known weapons procurements, research programs, and technical developments are added up. This year, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, the U.S. military's black budget will rise to levels not seen since the 1980s, from $16.2 billion last year [2001] to $20.3 billion.

Huge amounts of money have been spent, often in areas of the US where UFO reports are most common. What happened to Kammler's secrets, and was antigravity among them?

 

Obergruppenführer Dr.Ing. Hans Kammler and General George S. Patton

Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11, 1945.

-- Tom Agoston, "Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia"  (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1985)

World War Two ended in Europe with the armored divisions of U.S. General George S. Patton's Third Army lunging deep into the tottering Third Reich, toward Arnstadt in Thuringia and toward the immense Skoda munitions works at Pilsen, Czechoslovakia. This little appreciated fact links together two of the war's most famous and powerful generals and perhaps affords a basis to speculate on the real reasons for the mysterious death of the one, and the equally mysterious "death" of the other.

The generals in question are General Patton, well-known to military history and America's most famous and capable field commander during the war in Europe, and SS Obergruppenführer Dr. Ing. (Doctor of Engineering) Hans Kammler, now little known to popular history, architect of the infamous Auschwitz death camps, responsible for the demolition of the Warsaw ghetto, and by the end of the war, the Third Reich's plenipotentiary for all secret weapons research, responsible directly to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and to Adolf Hitler himself.

There is some entity within the Third Reich that appears to have coordinated extremely sensitive and secret weapons research projects, including possible oversight of Germany's apparently large uranium enrichment program. However, this entity was responsible for a great deal more than that. It is necessary at this juncture to say something about it, however, as it now directly enters the picture in the speculative reconstruction of the strange death of the one, and the disappearance of the other, of these two very important generals.

This entity first came to public light in the aftermath of World War Two, in the 1950s, in a series of publications in West Germany, and in a book by former German major Rudolf Lusar. These publications alleged that Nazi Germany had created and successfully tested "unusual" aircraft, including flying disks or saucers. Thus was born the "Nazi Legend" of the "real origin" of UFOs. The Nazi Legend maintained that this secretive development occurred under the direct auspices of the SS.

The allegations of an ultra-top secret entity coordinating and controlling the Nazi secret weapons research in the final years of the war tended to be discounted, along with its more sensational component, the "Flying Saucers" themselves. Moreover, discounting these allegations was easy to do, since they rested upon the isolated testimony of a disenchanted German major with definite Nazi sympathies (Lusar) and the "eye witness" statements of one or two others who came forward to corroborate the story, each with their own shady associations.

All that gradually began to change, however, by a sequence of events ranging from the publication of a book by a former British intelligence officer, Tom Agoston, in 1985, by the German reunification itself in 1989, which made a host of archives of the former East Germany available to researchers. A number of books has appeared in Germany since the reunification made these archives accessible, and moreover, the formerly inaccessible SS secret underground facilities and complexes finally became accessible to the public. Aided and abetted in their efforts by the declassification of several documents by the Clinton administration in the United States, German researchers began to probe the new information, reconnecting the dots, and presenting a chilling picture of the actual state of Nazi wartime research and its enormous discrepancy with the postwar Allied Legend. This body of work has been almost entirely ignored in North America. Agoston's work was the first indication from the "mainstream" that there may have been something behind the Nazi Legend. Agoston revealed his story for the first time after his source, none other than close Kammler associate at the famous Skoda Works, Dr. Wilhelm Voss, died. The story that Voss told Agoston at the end of the war was, according to Agoston, in confidence.

As Agoston notes rather sarcastically, Kammler boasted almost the perfect "corporate resume" and a documentable record of "whole person management" as a "team player": A modern day management consultant who was talent hunting for a "total professional with total involvement" would certainly have been fascinated by the bizarre curriculum vitae Kammler could have submitted. He could demonstrate a "track record" in "very senior appointments," with skill in putting across "aggressive growth plans."...

The most prominent post-reunification German sources for this story are Friedrich Georg's series on secret weapons, "Hitler's Siegeswaffen" series in three volumes; and the studies of Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, "Das Geheimnis der Deutschen Atombombe"; "Die Atombombe und das Dritte Reich"; "Hitler und die 'Bombe"; Harald Fath's "1945 -Thüringens Manhattan Projekt and Geheime Kommandosache - S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion". Also not to be neglected is Robert K. Wilcox's "Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race against Time to Build its Own Atomic Bomb", for the latter book raises the question of where Japan acquired its enrichment capability and stocks of uranium in no uncertain terms. Also important is Karl Heinz Zunneck's "Geheimtechnologien, Wunderwaffen und die irdischen Facetten des UFO-Phanomens".

In the the Third Reich, within a span of a few years, the number of positions Kammler had held in turn was phenomenal. 3

Among these "senior appointments" he once commanded were:

(1) Operational control of the V-l and V-2 terror bombardments of London, Liege, Brussels, Antwerp and Paris;
(2) Operational control of all missile production and research, including the V-2 and the intercontinental ballistic missile. the A9/10;   
(3) Design and construction oversight of the world's "first bombproof underground aircraft and missile factory sites," including sites for the production of jet engines and the Messerschmitt 262; 
(4) Command of the SS Building and Words Division, the department which handled all large construction projects for the Reich, including death camps, "buna factories," and supply roads for invading German legions in Russia; 
(5) Design and construction of the world's first underground testing and proving range for missiles;  
(6) Command, control and coordination of all of the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the war's end.4 

This warped and twisted administrative genius first came to the attention of Himmler and Hitler "with a brilliant hand-colored design for the Auschwitz concentration camp, which he subsequently built. Later he was called in to advise on the modalities for boosting the daily output of its gas chambers from 10,000 to 60,000." 

All this is to say that not only was Kammler a butcher, but that by the war's end, Hitler had "concentrated more power in Kammler's hands than he had ever entrusted to a single person," bar none. If one were to compare Kammler's position to a similar hypothetical position in the former Soviet Union, such a position would mean that the general who (commanded) the SS-20 rockets in Europe and Asia (the Commander in Chief of Strategic Rocket Forces) would also head research, development, and production of missiles. In addition, he would be in charge of producing all modern aircraft for the Red Air Force and have overall command of the mammoth civil engineering projects or the production centers in Siberia's sub-zero climate. Last, but very much not least, he would lead the national grid of Gulags. To match Kammler's position in the SS, the Soviet general holding all these variegated commands would also be third in the KGB pecking order. 

Indeed, one would have to add to Agoston's list, for such a Soviet general would also have had to be in charge of the coordination of all the most post-nuclear and super secret advanced scientific research and black projects in the entire Soviet Union. It is thus in the person of SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler that all the lines of investigation meet: the Buna factory and slave labor of the camps, exploited for grizzly medical experimentation and labor in the secret underground laboratories and production facilities, the atom bomb project, and as even more horrendous and monstrous aircraft and weapons development. If there was a gold mine of information, then it was available in the blueprints and files that were locked in Kammler's vaults, or even more securely in his brain. It is this fact and Kammler's extraordinary dossier that make his post-war fate even more problematical. But what of Kammler's "Special SS Command" (Sonderkommando) structure itself? What was it that was so revolutionary that Dr. Voss would have required Agoston to maintain confidentiality until after his death?

Voss had joined Skoda in 1938, when the plant was ceded to the Reich under the Munich Pact - Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini and Daladier, allotting the Sudeten German areas of Czechoslovakia to Germany and became an affiliate of Hitler's principle arms maker Krupp. With his flair for quiet diplomacy, Voss was immensely popular with the Czech executives, who had remained in leading positions at the time of the German takeover of Skoda. Voss even saw to it that Czech workers, paid on the local and not Reich wages, were paid more money.

Also important to the Skoda-SS relationship is the fact that all of Bohemian Czechoslovakia became a "Reich Protectorate," in effect turning total political, administrative, and military control of Bohemia over to the SS. It is in this context that the special relationship between Voss and Kammler developed.

By quirk of fate, the careers of Kammler and Voss overlapped at Skoda, where they jointly set up and operated what was generally regarded by insiders as the Reich's most advanced high-technology military research center. Working as a totally independent undercover operation for the SS, the center was under the special auspices of Hitler and Himmler. Going outside the scope and field of Skoda's internationally coveted general research and development division, it worked closely with Krupp and was primarily concerned with analysis of captured equipment, including aircraft, and copying or improving the latest technical features. In so doing the SS group was to go beyond the first generation of secret weapons. 

Thus one has the first component of this Special SS Command: the analysis, duplication, and improvement of all recovered foreign and enemy technology. This in itself is not surprising, since all major combatants during the war maintained such research facilities.

The second thing one must note is the careful and deliberate camouflaging of the SS Special Command inside the normal engineering division of the Skoda works. But the real operational goals of this Special command were far more than the mere analysis of captured enemy equipment, as Voss detailed to Agoston.

Its purpose was to pave the way for building nuclear-powered aircraft, working on the application of nuclear energy for propelling missiles and aircraft; laser beams, then still referred to as "death rays"; a variety of homing rockets and to seek other potential areas for high- technology breakthrough. In modem high-tech jargon, the operation would probably be referred to as an "SS research think tank." Some work on second-generation secret weapons, including the application of nuclear propulsion for aircraft and missiles, was already well advanced. 

Nuclear powered aircraft would require the development and miniaturization of functioning atomic reactors, something the Germans were not, according to the Allied Legend, supposed to have achieved. And though the mention of lasers seems to stretch one's credulity beyond all reason, there is credible evidence that the Germans were up to just that, and more besides. But the most remarkable thing about this "SS think tank" was that it was established entirely without the knowledge of Göring, Speer, or any of the other big-wigs or research centers in the Reich. This would not only explain Speer's puzzlement at Jackson's question, but would also explain the apparent lack of information on the part of the Farm Hall scientists interred in England after the war.

The claim that the Germans experimented with an atomic bomb recalls one of the more bizarre moments from the main Nuremberg trial, 21 June 1946, the American prosecutor's cross-examination of Albert Speer, the former Munitions Minister:


MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: And certain experiments were also conducted and certain researches conducted in atomic energy, were they not?

SPEER: We had not got as far as that, unfortunately, because the finest experts we had in atomic research had emigrated to America, and this had thrown us back a great deal in our research, so that we still needed another year or two in order to achieve any results in the splitting of the atom.


MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: The policy of driving people out who didn't agree with Germany hadn't produced very good dividends, had it?


SPEER: Especially in this sphere it was a great disadvantage to us.


MR. JUSTICE JACKSON: Now, I have certain information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz and I would like to ask you if you heard about it or knew about it. The purpose of the experiment was to find a quick and complete way of destroying people without the delay and trouble of shooting and gassing and burning, as it had been carried out, and this is the experiment, as I am advised. A village, a small village was provisionally erected, with temporary structures, and in it approximately 20,000 Jews were put. By means of this newly invented weapon of destruction, these 20,000 people were eradicated almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace left of them; that it developed, the explosive developed, temperatures of from 400 to 500 [degrees] centigrade and destroyed them without leaving any trace at all. Do you know about that experiment?


SPEER: No, and I consider it utterly improbable. If we had had such a weapon under preparation, I should have known about it. But we did not have such a weapon. It is clear that in chemical warfare attempts were made on both sides to carry out research on all the weapons one could think of, because one did not know which party would start chemical warfare first..

These two facts alone indicate that the SS Special Command headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen was more than just a secret weapons project being run through ordinary channels. Unlike even its Manhattan Project counterpart, it had no connection to the standard branches of the German military, the German state, or even the Nazi Party; it was entirely off the books. It is, in every sense that we have come to know it, a Black Project, coordinating all black projects in Nazi Germany. So extensive was the mandate given to this group that if there was a large uranium enrichment program underway in Germany for the production of atom bombs, then this is the entity most likely coordinating it.

Agoston alludes to the existence and connection of the uranium enrichment program to the Kammler Staff when he states "Even fissile uranium-235 was reportedly made available to Berlin's prime Axis ally." While the enormous implications of this statement are obvious, Agoston does not pursue the atom bomb component of the Kammler Staff in his book, though he surely would have suspected it. The link of the Auschwitz "Buna plant" to the SS via the death camp there already provides one link to Kammler, since the "Buna plant" fell under SS jurisdiction via the camp itself, and thus the connection to Kammler is direct. 

Moreover, not only did Skoda's "overtly operating research and development division" work closely with the SS on some less sensitive projects, it "provided a convenient cover for the Kammler Staff specialists, culled in great secrecy from Germany's research institutes to supplement the in-house experts. All were picked for their know-how and not for their Party records, Voss said. All had to have the ability to tackle visionary projects." The Kammler Staff Special Command even circulated top secret scientific paper and memos to the various scientists within the group itself via a central office of scientific reports. Some of these reports were then used as a basis of recruitment of top scientists. 

So what was the Kammler Staff, or Kammlerstab, as outlined by Voss and Agoston?

First, it was the continuation of "normal" science, free of the constraints of Nazi party ideology, but under the control of the SS! But it was much more. Not only was it a "think tank," but it was also a central clearing house for ideas, for mapping out precise technology trees for the acquisition of second and third generation weapons. But it was more, it was also a fully-funded research Black Programs coordinating office with its own "inexhaustible" and expendable labor pool.

All of it was coordinated by SS General Hans Kammler.

All of it was headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen.

And one more thing. By the war's end, Kammler also had control of the Reich's heavy-lift long range transport aircraft, consisting of several Ju 290s and the two enormous Ju 390s, one of which, according to Agoston, made a polar flight to Japan on 28 March 1945. 

This fact is merely reported by Agoston without substantiation, leading one to the conclusion that the source of the information must have been Dr. Voss. It is worth noting that Nick Cook reports that Kammler had control of the Ju 390s as part of another SS Special Evacuation Command, which was the brainchild of none other than Martin Bormann. The purpose of this special command was to evacuate.... something. Cook reports that one of these enormous Ju 390s simply went missing at the end of the war.

If ever there was a reason for the Allied High Command to by-pass Berlin and head south to central Germany (Thuringia) and for Patton's Third Army to make a beeline for Pilsen and Prague, this was it. Thus, only in the recently revealed context of the existence of the Kammlerstab do any of the Allied or German military deployments or operations at the end of the war make any genuine military sense. The "National Redoubt" story was likely just that, a story put out by the American OSS to force the Allied commanders to change objectives, without disclosing the real nature of their concerns, priorities, and intelligence objectives.

General Kammler, in addition to his "accomplishments" in streamlining death camp efficiency, his methodical and efficient leveling of the ruined Warsaw Ghetto and meticulous accounting of every last brick and stone removed, his coordination of the most arcane, and perhaps the biggest, secret weapons black projects program in human history, has also another odd distinction to his credit. He of all the high-ranking Nazis indicted and tried at Nuremberg either posthumously or in absentia, was never formally indicted, much less brought to trial. He is altogether missing from the docket, and altogether just simply missing. Kammler has yet another distinction. He appears to have been not only a very accomplished messenger of death for others, but also appears to have achieved the astonishing feat of having died himself no less than four times, each under different circumstances.

Agoston commented at length on the odd assortment of "facts" surrounding Kammler's fate:

The "first death of General Hans Kammler" is recounted by Albert Speer himself, in his last book. In this most simple version, Kammler ordered his adjutant to shoot him. The "suicide" allegedly took place in Prague as Kammler realized the war was lost and, according to Speer, "acted in elitist SS loyalty." As Agoston quips, "even the most ardent worshipper of Teutonic creed could not possibly suggest that elitist SS loyalty can be demonstrated three times, in three locations, and all on the same day." The second version of the story, related to Agoston by Kammler's "civilian" aide Dr. Wilhelm Voss, was that the general took cyanide somewhere "on the road between Pilsen and Prague on May 9."

The third version of Kammler's death was doled out by V-2 rocket expert, General Walter Dornberger, subsequently employed by the American firm of Bell Aerospace. According to Dornberger, Kammler's mental and emotional state had quickly deteriorated in the final days of the war, and the general overheard Kammler ordering his aide to shoot him if things became "hopeless." But this does not square with Dornberger's close associate, Dr. Werner von Braun's own recollection of a conversation he overheard between Kammler and his aide Starck fully two weeks later. According to von Braun, Kammler and Starck discussed the possibility of "going underground" before the Americans arrived, disguising themselves as monks in a nearby abbey. This report, if true, is perhaps the most interesting, since it indicates that Kammler had no intentions of surrendering himself to any of the Allied powers, but rather, intended to survive, perhaps independently continuing his oversight of secret weapons development.

Another version of Kammler's death has him giving a speech to his assembled aides in Prague in early May 1945, dismissing them from their duties and advising them to return home, and then walking into a woods where he then shot himself. And lastly, there is a version of Kammler's death that has him dying a typical SS hero's death, fighting and going down in a blaze of "glory" in the face of rebelling and revolting Czechs. 

Death

There are different accounts of Kammler's death:

• That he committed suicide with a cyanide capsule on 7 May 1945.
• That he shot himself in the head on 9 May 1945.
• That he asked his aide Zeuner to shoot him.
• That he was shot by his aide-de-camp in Prague.
• That the Soviets executed Kammler along with 200 other SS soldiers
• That he died in the USA many years after the war.

Preuk statement

On 9 July 1945 Kammler's widow petitioned to have him declared dead as of 9 May 1945, adducing a sworn statement by Kammler's driver, Kurt Preuk, according to which Preuk had personally seen "the corpse of Kammler and been present at his burial" on 9 May 1945. The District Court of Berlin-Charlottenburg ruled on 7 September 1948 that his death was officially established as 9 May 1945.

In a later sworn statement on 16 October 1959, Preuk stated that Kammler's date of death was "about 10 May 1945", but that he did not know the cause of death. However, it must be recognised that many ex Nazis made many sworn statements, to suit many ends. On 7 September 1965, Heinz Zeuner (a wartime aide of Kammler's), stated that Kammler had died on 7 May 1945 and that his corpse had been observed by Zeuner, Preuk and others. All the eyewitnesses consulted were certain that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. In addition to testifying to Kammler's suicide by cyanide, Zeuner also claimed earlier that Kammler had asked Zeuner to shoot him. However, doubt has been cast on Zeuner's evidence since he is reported to have told an earlier denazification hearing in February 1948 that he was already in US custody on 2 May 1945. Zeuner's evidence in several sworn statements has subsequently been shown to conflict directly with declassified records.

In their accounts of Kammler's movements Preuk and Zeuner claimed that he left Linderhof near Oberammergau  on 28 April 1945 for a tank conference at Salzburg and then went to Ebensee (where tank tracks were manufactured). According to Preuk and Zeuner he then travelled back from Ebensee to visit his wife in the Tyrol region, when he gave her two cyanide tablets. The next day, 5 May, he is said to have departed Tyrol for Prague

However, Preuk and Zeuner's testimony clashes with the known movements of US Divisions throughout Austria in May 1945. By 4 May 1945 the US 103rd Infantry was already at Innsbruck, preventing Kammler from travelling from Ebensee to Tyrol. The US 88th Infantry division had arrived from Italy cutting off any route to the Tyrol from the south while the US 44th Infantry Division established a command post at Imst in Tyrol on 4 May 1945 and together with the 103rd entirely controlled the Tyrol region preventing Kammler from visiting his wife. Preuk is quite clear that they drove everywhere so that it would have been impossible to bypass US checkpoints.

A further complication is that the 80th Infantry Division reached Ebensee on 4 May 1945, and the concentration camp itself was liberated by two M-18 tank destroyers of the US 80th Division at 2.50pm on 5 May 1945. This would have made it highly likely that Kammler would have been apprehended by US forces.

Prague

Author Bernd Ruland, in his 1969 book "Wernher von Braun: Mein Leben für die Raumfahrt", reports an altogether different account of Kammler's death. According to Ruland, Kammler arrived in Prague by aircraft on 4 May 1945, following which he and 21 SS men defended a Bunker against an attack by more than 500 Czech resistance fighters on 9 May. During the attack, Kammler's aide-de-camp Sturmbannführer Starck shot Kammler to avoid him falling into enemy hands. This version can reportedly be traced to Walter Dornberger, who in turn is said to have heard it from eyewitnesses.

Controversy

In recent years Kammler has become associated with apocryphal Nazi super weapons such as "Die Glocke". The first suggestion along these lines came from author Nick Cook, who in his "The Hunt for Zero Point" (2001) raised the possibility that Kammler was brought to the United States along with other German scientists as part of Operation Paperclip as a result of his supposed involvement in secret German projects. Joseph P. Farrell's "Reich of the Black Sun" (2005) casts further doubt upon the facts surrounding his death, however Farrell's only source is the book "Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia" (1985) by self-identified "British Intelligence agent" Tom Agoston.

Post-war search for Kammler

US occupation forces conducted various inquiries into Kammler’s whereabouts, beginning with the headquarters of 12th Army ordering a complete inventory of all personnel involved in missile production on 21 May 1945. This resulted in the creation of a file for Kammler, stating that he was possibly in Munich. The CIC noted that he had been seen shortly prior to the arrival of US troops in Oberjoch.

Rumours about Kammler's death either did not reach the US authorities or were disbelieved. The Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (CIOS) in London ordered a search for him in early July 1945. In response, 12th Army replied on 14 July that he was last seen on 8/9 April in the Harz region. In August, Kammler's name made "List 13" of the UN for Nazi war criminals. Only in 1948 did the CIOS receive the information that Kammler reportedly fled to Prague and had committed suicide. The informant also claimed that Kammler had always carried his blueprints with him and that there was a rumour among his former close associates that Kammler was by now working in the Soviet Union. Original blueprints of Kammler’s major projects were later found in the personal property of Samuel Goudsmit, the scientific leader of the Alsos Mission.

In June 1949, the denazification office of the US authorities in Hesse launched an inquiry into Kammler's political actions before the end of the war, not on his whereabouts. The reason for this inquiry is not documented. However, a report written by one Oskar Packe on Kammler was subsequently filed. The very thorough report stated on Kammler's whereabouts that he had been arrested by US troops on 9 May 1945 at the Messerschmitt works at Oberammergau. However, Kammler and some other senior SS personnel had managed to escape in the direction of Austria or Italy. Packe disbelieved the reports about a suicide, as these were "refuted by the detailed information from the CIC" about arrest and escape.

More recently, additional material has come to light. A CIC report from April 1946 listed SS officers known to be outside Germany that were considered to be of special interest to the CIC. That list included Kammler. Moreover, in May 1945 the US authorities in Austria had ordered an inventory of German public property there. These included construction sites for plane and missile production formerly run by the SS. In mid-July 1945, the head of the Gmunden CIC office, Major Morrisson interviewed an unnamed German on the issue of a numbered account associated with these construction sites formerly overseen by Kammler. A report published years later, in late 1947/early 1948, stated that only Kammler and two other persons had access to the account. The report also said that "shortly after the occupation, Hans Kammler appeared at CIC Gmunden and gave a statement on operations at Ebensee". The CIC notes on the interview give no name, but the interviewee must have been one of the three people with access to the account. Aside from Kammler, one was known to have left Austria in May 1945, the other was in a POW camp during July.

Finally, Donald W. Richardson (1917-1997) a former special agent of the OSS, involved in the work of the Alsos Mission, claimed to be "the man who brought Kammler to the US". Shortly before he died, Richardson reportedly told his sons about his experience during and after the war, including "Operation Paperclip"'. According to them, Richardson claimed to have supervised Kammler until 1947. Kammler was supposedly "interned at a place of maximum security, with no hope, no mercy and without seeing the light of day until he hanged himself".

Possible last documented independent testimonies

A purported section of a wartime diary, relating to the surrender of Garmisch-Partenkirchen to Allied troops, mentions Kammler and his staff. According to this account, Kammler and what the author refers to as his staff arrived in Oberammergau (north of Garmisch-Partenkirchen) on 22 April 1945. The diary refers to a "staff" of some 600 people, with "good quality" cars and trucks. This arrival seems to have been badly received and the local authorities had several arguments with Kammler himself. These conflicts are mentioned in the entries for 23 and 25 April. The last reference to Kammler, not implicating him directly but his "staff", comes on the night of 28 April – an Oberleutnant Burger reports that they had gone, on the same night that American forces began storming Oberammergau, forcing their way to Garmisch and Austria. This departure is backed up by a history of Oberammergau which notes that Kammler's "staff" moved just before the American offensive over the Tirol.

What precisely happened to Kammler at the end of World War Two is still not clear. On 4 April 1945 British troops occupied an underground nuclear Bunker at Espelkamp, 10km north of Lübeck in Germany, according to Montgomery's HQ war diary found in PRO files at Kew Gardens. There they discovered a number of staff cars, including five which appeared to have been used by Kammler and his staff. According to some accounts, they also found Kammler’s decomposing body in a water tank in the Bunker. However, this seems to be an error as there is good evidence that Kammler had an extended meeting with Albert Speer on 13 April in Berlin, and ordered von Braun and his associates to be freed from Oberammergau on 27 April. Walter Dornberger was also freed and mentions this in his memoirs.

This incurred Hitler's wrath and sparked orders to arrest and execute Kammler on that date. Hitler had ordered such scientists to be held and executed to prevent their falling into Soviet hands.

  German convoy leaving Prague, 9 May 1945. Was Kammler in one of these vehicles?

In another account, Kammler was said to have been killed in a Bunker in Prague in May 1945 when it was over-run by Czech partisans, possibly when he was shot by his own adjutant on Kammler’s orders to stop him falling into the hands of Partisans, possibly during combat, accounts differ. In yet another version, Kammler left Prague in a convoy heading south on 9 May (World War Two in Europe officially ended on 8 May with the unconditional surrender of all German armed forces), but killed himself by taking cyanide (or by shooting himself) en-route to Pisek in southern Czecoslovakia where the rest of the group surrendered to American troops.

In 1948 Kammler’s widow, Jutta Kammlerm, petitioned a court in Berlin to have her husband declared dead as of 9 May 1945. She included a sworn statement provided by Kammler’s driver, SS-Oberscharführer Kurt Preuk, who claimed that he had driven the car in which Kammler had left Prague and that he had been present on 9 May 1945 when Kammler ordered the car to pull off the road in a forested area to the south of Prague before shooting himself. Preuk said that he and other members of the entourage then buried Kammler’s body in a shallow grave before continuing on their way.  By a ruling of the District Court of Berlin-Charlottenburg on 7 September 1948 (file 14.II 344/48), Kammler’s death on 9 May 1945 was officially established.

The Central War Crimes Office for Nordrhein-Westfalen conducted an inquiry into Kammler's involvement with the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, issuing the following statement to the Senior Public Prosecutor in Köln on 3 October 1963: "...the death of the accused (as documented by the District Court of Berlin-Charlottenburg) has completed the execution of this case..." 

The most popular theory about Hans Kammler is that he did not die at the end of World War Two, but that he was spirited away by the allies as part of Operation Paperclip. Operation Paperclip was a real operation in which prominent Nazi scientists and engineers were selected by US and British intelligence services for their potential contribution to post-war projects. Probably the most well-known people involved in Paperclip were Dr Wernher Von Braun and Dr Walter Robert Dornberger, both involved in the Nazi V2 development programme. After the end of the war, both were taken to America to continue their work on rocketry. Dornberger eventually became Vice President of the Bell Aircraft Corporation and von Braun ended his career as Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning at NASA. Von Braun was also a Sturmbannführer (Major) in the SS which proved no impediment to his subsequent career in the US. Towards the end of World War Two, Hitler ordered that a number of top German scientists should be executed to avoid their falling into the hands of the allies. In April 1945 von Braun and Dornberger were nervously awaiting their fate in the Garmisch area of Germany when they were unexpectedly rescued by Hans Kammler.

Many people like to imagine that Kammler was captured by the Allies and given a new identity under Operation Paperclip. They also suggest that this is the reason Kammler’s name disappeared from most-wanted lists so quickly and why he doesn’t appear in post-war paperwork, but this doesn’t really make any practical sense. The people targeted under Paperclip were scientists and engineers with theoretical and practical knowledge of new technologies. Kammler was simply a brutally efficient project manager with knowledge and experience of civil engineering and it’s very difficult to see why this would have been of sufficient value in the post-war world to overlook his involvement in large numbers of deaths and executions. Even his involvement in the mysterious Projekt Riese and Projekt Kronos would only have been as an administrator, not as a scientist.

However, it has also been suggested that Kammler had access to documents relating to secret SS research and that he may have traded these to the allies for his freedom. However, once the Allies had the documents, Kammler would have been of no further value to them. The idea that Kammler had at least some dealings with the Allies has been the subject of numerous claims, counter claims and “astounding revelations”. But so far, no-one has produced anything convincing that Kammler was part of Operation Paperclip or any similar operation which led to him working for or even negotiating directly with the Allies.

On the surface, the sworn testimony provided by SS Oberscharführer Kurt Preuk in 1948 certainly seems confirm that Kammler committed suicide on 9 May 1945. Preuk was a driver in Kammler’s entourage and knew him well. When he produced his sworn statement in 1948 Preuk claimed that he had been present on 9 May 1945 when Kammler shot himself during a break in the journey from Prague. However, in another sworn statement by Preuk made in 1959 as part of a death benefits case, he claimed that Kammler’s death had occurred "on or around 10 May 1945" and that he was not sure of the cause of death. The situation was made even less clear when in 1965 Heinz Zeuner, a former SS SS Obersturmführer and another driver in the Kammler entourage, claimed to have been present when Kammler died and stated that his death occurred on 7 May 1945, south of Daffle/Moldavia, and that he, along with Preuk and others of Kammler's staff, observed the SS General's corpse. All eyewitnesses consulted on the matter asserted their certainty that cause of death was cyanide poisoning.  

In 2012, German researchers using government records uncovered further fascinating information about Kammler, his alleged death and the drivers in his entourage. It appears that in the Kammler group there was a third driver and one of Kammler’s longest serving aides, thirty-five year-old Oberscharführer Friedrich Baum. However, Baum had been badly wounded while driving one of Kammler’s staff cars when the partisan uprising in Prague erupted on 6 May 1945. Interviewed after the war, Heinz Zeuner claimed that he was present when the car was attacked (though Kammler was not) and described how Baum was shot in the left knee while driving, meaning that he was unable to use the accelerator. Zeuner was able to reach over with his own left leg and operate the accelerator while Baum steered the car to safety. Zeuner went to explain that Baum was taken to hospital in Prague but was later killed by Partisans when the hospital was over-run a few days later.

However, on 23 May 1945 a thirty-five year old Army Oberfeldwebel (Sergeant) Friedrich Baum from the Berlin Motor Pool was admitted to a makeshift hospital in the lakeside town of Gmunden in Lower Austria. Hospital records show that Baum had been wounded in the knee in Prague on 4 May, but that his leg had become infected during the long journey to Austria. His leg was amputated in hospital but he died there on 29 May and was buried in grave No. 112 at the nearby military cemetery. There are a number of problems with this story. First, Oberfeldwebel Friedrich Baum of the Berlin Motor Pool does not exist according to German Army records. Given the reported date and location of Baum’s wound, it seems very likely that this was actually Oberscharführer Friedrich Baum of the SS. It was certainly very common for SS troops at the end of the war to adopt army identification in order to avoid arrest, imprisonment and retribution. However, the wound to Baum’s leg is also a problem. Accounts from Prague are very clear that Baum was wounded in the left knee. But hospital records from Gmunden state that Oberfeldwebel Baum’s right knee was injured and that his right leg was subsequently amputated.

Things got even more confused in 1967 when the "Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge" (German War Graves Commission) reviewed the military cemetery in Gmunden as part of a national review and consolidation of war graves. The plan was to erect uniform markers on graves and to consolidate the many small cemeteries into larger plots. When grave No. 112 was opened to exhume Baum’s body, it was found to be empty. When the cemetery was re-dedicated in 1987 the marker over grave 112 read “I.M. FELDW. FRIEDRICH BAUM, 21.6.1906 – 29.5.1945”. The “I. M.” Stands for "In Memorium" and is generally used on a grave which is intended as a memorial but in which the body is not actually present.

The mystery surrounding the identity and death of Friedrich Baum has generated speculation that Kammler had adopted the papers and identity of his dead driver, that hospital records of his wound and death were falsified and that he escaped from Gmunden by adopting yet another false identity. There have also been reports of sightings of Kammler in Argentina after the war and suggestions that he actually surrendered to American forces much later than the date of his supposed death, though none of these have ever been confirmed.

Projekt Riese is one of the most mysterious projects undertaken by the Nazis during World War Two mainly because, although we know a fair amount about what was done, we have no idea why it was done. The project began in September 1943 under the control of Albert Speer, Minster for Armaments and Production. However, in April 1944 Hitler expressed his disappointment at the slow progress of the project and control was handed to the SS and Hans Kammler, undoubtedly due to his previous success in constructing giant underground factories.

The project involved at least seven vast, linked underground complexes in the Sowie (Owl) Mountains in what was then Lower Silesia in Germany but which became Polish territory after World War Two. We have now no idea of the full scale of Projekt Riese because many tunnels are blocked by rubble or inaccessible due to flooding and many of the original records were destroyed during the war. A surviving 1944 message from Hitler to Albert Speer certainly seems to imply that the complex was much larger than the areas that have been discovered so far.

However, it is known that the project involved many thousands of metres of tunnels and a number of large open areas of over 6,000m3.

Some of the construction work reads like something out of a science fiction novel. For example, at Schloss Fürstenstein in the city of Waldenburg (now Książ Castle in the city of Wałbrzych) we know that at least two levels of underground chambers and tunnels were constructed. The first level was 15m underground and accessed from a hidden lift shaft in the castle. The second level was 53m underground and accessed by another lift shaft hidden 15m under the castle courtyard. There are thought to be other, deeper levels, but access is blocked by rubble and flooding and these have not been fully explored. Seventy-five percent of all the underground areas here are reinforced by concrete and work was so extensive that a concentration camp was set up adjacent to the castle in 1944 just to provide slave workers for this construction.

And this was just one of seven underground sites, most located within an area of around twenty square Kilometres. One of the largest, at Wolfsberg (now Włodarz) had over three kilometres of tunnels that we know of, and probably many more as this complex is now largely flooded.

To put all this construction work in context, by April 1944, when Kammler took over responsibility for Projekt Riese, it was clear to most people that Germany could not win the war. The Russians were advancing inexorably in the east, the Allies had invaded North Africa and Sicily and were advancing through Italy, Italy had surrendered to the Allies and British and American bombers were destroying German cities and industrial capacity. Most pressing, an Allied invasion of France was expected imminently. Germany had a desperate need for concrete and steel reinforcement to build defences on the French coast and elsewhere and to create air-raid shelters in Germany. And yet, a large proportion of this precious steel and concrete was diverted to build these underground complexes – some estimates suggest that as much of 40% of the total German production of concrete and reinforcing steel in 1944 was used at Projekt Riese.

Why? What was the purpose of Projekt Riese that made it more important than building defences to prevent the expected allied invasion of France? The answer is that we simply don’t know. Some German records survive which relate to the construction of this project, but none that identify its intended purpose. It has been suggested that this was planned to be a huge command complex from where Hitler and the German military could safely direct the war. Or that these were to be underground armament factories safe from allied bombing. It may have been both. Or neither. We will never know for certain and Projekt Riese was over-run by Russian forces in 1945 before it was completed and before it could become operational.

Inevitably there has been a huge amount of speculation as to the intended purpose of Projekt Riese. This has included the suggestions that it was to be the location for the research and development of German "Wonder Weapons", including chemical, biological and nuclear weapons, developments of the V2 programme and a production facility for very advanced aircraft. It has also been suggested that the complex was to be used in part to store art and treasures looted by the Nazis from museums, private collections, banks and archives in Europe.

There are persistent rumours that the legendary Amber Room, stolen by the Germans from the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg during World War Two and never recovered, was hidden somewhere in the complex. There are also local stories that a train laden with Nazi gold disappeared somewhere in the Owl Mountains in May 1945 and that presumably this was also hidden within the complex. In August 2015 two treasure hunters, Piotr Koper and Andreas Richter, claimed to have located a train in a previously undiscovered tunnel within the Projekt Riese complex. However, Polish authorities were quick to close off the site and so far, no attempt has been made to excavate to discover if the train really exists and to find out what it contains.

But if we have no formal evidence on the purpose of Projekt Riese, we do have some tantalising clues about a nearby complex which did become operational during World War Two. The Wenceslas Mine complex near the village of Ludwidsdorf in Lower Silesia, Germany (now Ludwikowice in Poland) was close to the various Projekt Riese complexes. The mine itself had been abandoned before 1939 but during the war Nobel Dynamit AG operated an ammunition manufacturing plant near the railhead originally installed to service the mine. However, during the war the underground tunnels of the mine were re-opened and extended to form part of Komplex Milkow, one of the Projekt Riese sites.

Just as for the rest of Projekt Riese, we don’t know the purpose of Komplex Milkow but in 1997 Igor Witkowski, a Polish researcher and historian, claimed to have found evidence that this was the final location for a mysterious Nazi research project known variously as "Die Glocke" (The Bell) and "Projekt Kronos".



Witkowski initially used documents from the interrogation of former SS Obergruppenführer Jakob Sporrenberg after the war to find out more about these experiments which involved a fourteen foot high device shaped like a Bell which used very large amounts of electrical power and glowed violet-blue when operated for short periods. Sporrenberg wasn’t a scientist and he seemed unclear about the ultimate purpose of the Bell, but it was claimed that technicians became unwell (or possibly died) in the vicinity of the device when it was activated. The scientific leader for the project was said to be Professor Walther Gerlach, who was also involved in the Nazi nuclear programme which has led to speculation that the Bell was some form of nuclear device. From surviving documents we do know that this project was classified as "Kriegsentscheidend" (Decisive for the outcome of the war) in 1942, the highest classification for secrecy and funding priority in Nazi Germany. From July 1944, administration of this project became one of the key responsibilities for Hans Kammler.

The Junkers 390 was designed for long-range maritime patrol but it was also used as a heavy-lift transport aircraft. With a range of almost 10,000km,
It would certainly have been capable of reaching Argentina from Germany
 

The Bell project was originally sited in Berlin before being moved to Breslau in 1943 and then to Schloss Fürstenstein in November 1944. In December 1944, the Bell was moved to Komplex Milkow within the enlarged Wenceslas Mine workings. As the war came to an end and the Russians closed in on the mine, the Bell and some of the scientists involved in the project were allegedly flown to Argentina (where there have also been alleged post-war sightings of Hans Kammler) on a six-engined Junkers 390 heavy transport aircraft. This seemed to be confirmed when a 1945 Argentine Economic Ministry report was declassified in 1993 and referred to a piece of equipment which might have been the Bell being unloaded in Argentina from a multi-engined German aircraft in May 1945.

The information uncovered by Witkowski was interesting, but he made a number of deductions based on his research which seemed to stretch credibility. First, he claimed that some of the structures remaining at the Wenceslas Mine site in the late 1990s provided evidence that research there had been working towards the development of a circular aircraft using some form of anti-gravity drive – in effect, a Nazi flying saucer. Then he went on to suggest that the Bell was an attempt to manufacture some sort of time-travel machine (mainly deduced from the name Projekt Kronos – Kronos (or Cronus) is a Greek God and father to Zeus. In Roman mythology he became Saturn and the God of time).

The flying saucer idea was taken up by British author and aviation journalist Nick Cook in his book "The Hunt for Zero Point" in 2002. He visited the Wenceslas Mine with Witkowski and concluded somewhat bizarrely that an odd circular concrete structure referred to as the “Henge” and the “Flytrap” was part of some sort of test rig for a circular flying craft.

There is just enough hard evidence to suggest that something very interesting was going on at the Wenceslas Mine complex during World War Two. We don’t know precisely what this was, but it does seem to have been a research project which was given a very high priority. Was this typical of other parts of Projekt Riese? Was this whole construction project actually intended as a secure base for high level, secret Nazi research? Did Hans Kammler’s involvement and knowledge of this research give him something he could use to bargain with the Allies at the end of the war?

In the confusion of the period at the end of World War Two it is probably unsurprising that we have conflicting accounts of what may have happened to Hans Kammler. However, what is very surprising is that the allies seemed to readily accept the fact of his death despite the differing accounts of where, when and how it happened.

This was a very senior Nazi and one of the most wanted men in Europe. Does it really seem credible that Allied Intelligence services would simply cross him off their list without some form of hard evidence, or at least a credible, first-hand eyewitness statement about his death? And yet, that is what appeared to happen. There was no search for Kammler’s body and  no attempt to verify the facts and circumstances of his death (the evidence of Preuk, his driver, wasn’t known until 1948).

At the first Nuremberg Trial which ran from November 1945 to October 1946 there was virtually no mention of Kammler in 35,000 pages of evidence and testimony. A search for "Kammler" in the digitised Nuremberg Trial project at the Harvard Law School Library brings up just 26 hits, and most of these are passing references to Kammler’s involvement in various construction projects. This makes Kammler unique amongst senior Nazis and SS officers. Mention of Kammler was also absent from the subsequent Nuremberg trials of lesser war criminals which continued to 1948. In fact, the first war crime trial in which Kammler’s role is specifically mentioned did not take place until 1958 and then he was only mentioned because the defendants (Wolfgang Wetzling and Ernst Klönne) offered as a defence that Kammler had directly ordered them to shoot a number of Polish slave workers.

At first glance it appears that there is a large, Kammler-shaped hole in most accounts of World War Two and the subsequent war crime trials which leads to suspicions of some sort of deliberate conspiracy. Kammler was very senior, part of the immediate circle round Himmler, involved in critical and top-secret projects and directly implicated in the deaths of large numbers of prisoners of war and slave labourers. Why haven’t we heard of him? It’s tempting to conclude that the Allies somehow induced Kammler to work for them, and that this is what lies behind the apparent suppression of his name after the war.

Kammler’s disappearance from the history of World War Two has more to do with what he did (and more notably, what he did not do) than with any deliberate attempt to suppress his name. Kammler was not an important combat soldier whose name was likely to crop-up in military histories, he did not achieve infamy by commanding a concentration camp or a death squad, he was not a scientist with valuable knowledge and he was not sufficiently politicized or influential to take part in high-level decision making within the Third Reich. Kammler was the ultimate faceless bureaucrat (albeit one who was responsible, directly or indirectly, for the deaths of thousands of innocent people) who, in the immediate aftermath of the war, simply wasn’t significant enough to register on the radar of most people or organisations. It’s only now, with the benefit of hindsight and access to a plethora of official records, that we can see how significant Kammler really was. Back then, he just did not seem terribly important.

The stories of Kammler’s death or suicide are not convincing. The accounts vary too much and are too vague to be satisfactory. The information about Friedrich Baum unearthed recently by German researchers is very interesting. It is based on solid research and backed by the use of original source material. The idea of Kammler disguising himself as an army sergeant also has echoes of Himmler’s attempts to escape justice. During the time when the wounded Baum was supposedly travelling from Prague to Gmunden, Himmler was on the run, using forged papers to identify himself as Sergeant Heinrich Hitzinger of the German Army.

A large part of Kammler’s career as a project manager involved long-term planning. He was clearly an intelligent, resourceful, determined and ruthless man and there can be little doubt that he saw the approaching end of the Third Reich well before it happened. It is likely that he planned carefully his own escape at the war’s end and used the resources available to him to set this up. Using a new identity, he most probably took up a new life in 1945, perhaps in another country, perhaps even on another continent.

And what about Der Riese, Die Glocke and the Wenceslas Mine? It is unlikely the underground complexes in Silesia were intended as factories – they were simply too far from sources of steel and other raw materials whose transport would have been subject to interruption by Allied bombing. Nor were they to be a new Führer Headquarters for some last stand of the Nazi regime. It is, thus, not certain what they were intended to be.

However, though Kammler and Projekt Riese were virtually unknown at the end of the war, both are now much better known and have even entered popular culture. The "Wolfenstein" series of computer games, with castles and hidden underground Bunkers filled with Nazi scientists undertaking sinister research are clearly strongly influenced by Schloss Fürstenstein and Projekt Riese. The 2012 movie "Iron Sky" features advanced Nazi technology and references Hans Kammler. In 2015 German director Andreas Sulzer released the documentary "The Search for Hitler’s Bomb" which cites Kammler as the leading figure in the development of a Nazi nuclear weapon, and later in 2016 a short science fiction movie called "The Kammler Code" and featuring a Nazi designed time machine will be released. In addition, countless books and articles have been written which feature Kammler, Projekt Riese or both. One can only hope that the growing awareness of these topics may mean that some researcher will one day stumble across evidence that will tell us precisely what happened to Hans Kammler and what was really going on in Lower Silesia in 1944/45.

 Basically three major facts stand out:

1. In almost four decades, official records show no positive confirmation of Kammler's death. No court of law, no media editor would accept the uncorroborated statement of "unknown comrades," still so referred to in official records as conclusive evidence of death especially if the death was alleged to have taken place in the chaos of collapsing Germany. 
2. The record shows no subsequent sworn corroborative statement Such a statement would automatically have been entered in the Red Cross and other dossiers on Kammler. 
3. None of the persons reporting any of the four versions of the general's death had conformed with the prescribed duty of all servicemen to detach one-half of a dead man's soldier's paybook or officer's identity document, to the nearest unit, relevant records office, Red Cross, or holding power, if the surviving serviceman had become a prisoner of war, to help notification of next of kin. Germans are traditionally meticulous and, to say the least, most sentimental in such matters. 

Thus, in spite of "the proliferation of unsubstantiated evidence that permeates all four versions of Kammler's death, the shell of the case contains sufficient facts to suggest a more than coincidental pattern of seemingly targeted and organized disinformation." The origin of this disinformation, according to Agoston, was probably within the SS itself, a program necessitated by Kammler's disappearance and likely treason to one of the victorious Allied powers.

What emerges from all this is that no one, no where can advance anything like a consistent account of the date, location, time, or even method of Kammler's death. Now it is suicide by poison, then suicide by gunshot, suicide by ordering an aide to shoot him, a fighting death, or disappearance into a Roman Catholic monastery. Now he is in Prague, now he isn't; now he's with people, now he isn't; now he's suffering mental and emotional collapse, now he isn't.

Did US fake top Nazi's WWII suicide and spirit him away to get hands on Hitler's secret weapons programme?

• He planned forced labour factories at Auschwitz and secret V-2 rocket plants
• Officially he committed suicide near Prague on 9 May 1945
• But a new documentary has suggested his suicide was faked by the Americans who wanted his secrets of Hitler's weapon programme


By Allan Hall In Berlin 
DailyMailOnline
10 June 201

The blood of thousands on his hands, SS General Hans Kammler killed himself in 1945 in the dying days of Hitler’s Germany.

That, at least, was his official fate. The man steeped in the horrors of the death camps had met his just deserts.

However, it is now claimed that Kammler survived the war, spirited away to America and given a new identity by the US authorities.

S.S. General Hans Kammler who was said to have killed himself at the end of the war may have escaped to America,  in order to pass on the Nazis' secret weapons programme, claims a new documentary.

For the general wasn’t just an expert in the technicalities of industrial scale slavery and slaughter, he was also deeply involved in the Nazis’ secret weapons programme. The Americans, according to a TV documentary, were determined to have his know-how and not let him fall into the hands of the Russians.

Both the US and the Soviet Union tried to recruit Hitler’s scientists after the war to help with their own space and military programmes.  But it is claimed that Kammler’s record was so monstrous that his death had to be faked and he had to have a new identity.

"The whole history of suicide is staged," said Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch.

"There are several documents that clearly demonstrate that Kammler was captured by the Americans".

Another expert, Matthias Uhl of the 'German Historical Institute' in Moscow, said:

"The reports from America are more credible than those given about the alleged suicide by Kammler’s associates".

Born in 1901, by the end of the Second World War Kammler was almost as powerful as SS Chief Heinrich Himmler and armaments Minister Albert Speer. He had access to the Nazi’s most advanced technology including the ‘weapons of retaliation’ – the V1 and V2 rockets that caused death and destruction in Britain, but came too late to turn the tide of the conflict.

Kammler designed and built the crematoria at Auschwitz which incinerated most of the bodies of the estimated 1.2 million people murdered at the camp in Nazi-occupied Poland

The history books say that, one day after the Third Reich surrendered on 9 May 1945, he either shot himself or took poison in the former German city of Stettin, now Szcecin in Poland. His body was never found.

‘This whole story of suicide was staged by two of his closest aides who were committed to him,’ Karlsch tells "ZDF TV" in Germany.

At the war’s end America, while taking part in the punishment of many top Nazis at the Nuremberg trials, also launched the covert 'Operation Paperclip' – the secret exit of top Nazi scientists.

"ZDF" says in the documentary:

"Sources say that Kammler was captured by the Americans and interrogated by the US Counterintelligence CIC. The secret service man responsible was Donald Richardson, a personal confidant of allied supreme commander General Dwight D Eisenhower".

The sons of the secret service man told the programme makers that their father was in charge of the German weapons expert after 1945.

One of them, John Richardson, said:

"This engineer brought a special treasure from the Third Reich into the United States. He offered modern weapons for us.

"It was put to my father that he should bring this 'useful' German into the United States to prevent him from falling into the hands of the Russian intelligence service".

It is not revealed under what name Kammler lived or when he died, though some archival material speaks of a "special guest" living under Richardson’s wing.

New testimony and documents say that Nazi leader Hans Kammler, the SS general in charge of the Nazi secret weapons, helped the Americans fabricate the atomic bomb that the United States launched against Hiroshima in August 1945.

Participating in the operation was Don Richardson who accompanied Kammler  to North America, carrying 60 kilos of enriched uranium manufactured by the Nazis.

This hypothesis -the Nazis and the Americans working together to attack Japan- is gaining support among German historians.

Kammler disappeared in 1945 and his body was never found. One version claims that, seeing the war was lost, it contacted the Americans and passed them information as well as material related to Nazi nuclear research.

Another hypothesis asserts that Kammler did not act alone, but counted on Hitler's permission, within the framework of a secret agreement between Nazis and Americans, reached before the end of the war.

Hans Kammler was the general to whom Hitler ordered the projects of secret weapons and that, in spite of being responsible for war crimes, was barely mentioned in the Nuremberg trials.

Among those who claim that the Nazi leader worked to produce the American atomic bomb is the son of Donald Richardson, the agent who played a major role in the controversial missions of the US secret services during the final months of World War II. In that sense, it should be noted that in the operations known as 'Paperclip' and 'Alsos', the Americans recruited Nazi scientists and secretly took them to the United States to take advantage of them and so that their knowledge did not fall into the hands of the Soviets.

Don Richardson's son, John, says his father was the agent in charge of picking up the Nazi general and 60 kilos of uranium for the American bomb.
Kammler thought that if he surrendered and collaborated with the Americans, he would not fall into Soviet hands and thus save his life. The secret mission fell to Don Richardson, a senior US agent. But Kammler did not fare well. 

Richardson's son tells him that his father, after arriving with the Uranium and helping with the making of the bomb, questioned Kammler constantly, at his home, and that Kammler died there, prisoner, in 1947.

Several years later, Don Richardson revealed the details of this mission to
his children, John and Doug, on his deathbed.

This shocking information is endorsed by a document of the Counterintelligence Corps [ICC] declassified in the United States in 1978 where it is said that "shortly after the occupation [of Germany] Hans Kammler appeared before the ICC men in Gmunden [Austrian municipality] and made a detailed statement".

Journalist Frank Döbert reconstructed the general's last weeks in Austria and claims that Kammler "traveled on a B-29 with a little more than 60 kilos of Uranium, bound for the United States and landed at the base of the Wendover Air Force. Preparations were underway for the launch of the atomic bomb on Japan. 

The German historian Rainer Karlsch also holds the same view because this version would explain another mystery: why was there hardly a mention of Kammler at the Nuremberg trials? - The
SS general  responsible for the deaths of thousands of prisoners in the Gusen camp's subterranean galleries, where nuclear experiments were carried out.

Th
e Americans moved more than 700 German scientists and their families to the United States. Yet the Paperclip and Alsos operations remain absolute top secret and still stir up controversy, as many of those "rescued" scientists had collaborated with their work on Nazi atrocities. The purpose of one of these operations, the Alsos, was to seize the Nazi nuclear secrets. If anyone knew them, it was Hans Kammler, the engineer-general who also commissioned the B8 Bergkristall underground tunnel complex in Austria, excavated at the expense of the lives of tens of thousands of deportees and where the Messerschmitt aircraft were built.

A German public television program ZDF has reported two atomic tests carried out in the region of Thuringia, before the end of the war, which have been known thanks to reports made in 1945 by the Soviet secret military service [GRU].

The Americans called  the powerful nuclear bomb loaded with 64 kilos of Uranium that exploded on Hiroshima at 8:15 am on 6 August 1945, Little Boy. On August 9 they launched another bomb, this time of Plutonium, on Nagasaki.
Three days later, on the 15th of that month, Japan announced its surrender, which ended the Second World War.
 
--
Article by Fátima Uribarri

See more in the book "The Secrets of Hitler", Abel Basti.

In all likelihood, therefore, Kammler did not die at all; he disappeared. The important question is, where?

A possibility is that Kammler arranged to turn over his secret weapons treasure trove to the OSS in exchange for his life. It could have been arranged by fellow SS General Wolff, already in negotiation with Allen Dulles, OSS station chief in Zürich. If so, then the sudden shift of Allied objectives to south central Germany may have originated from intelligence originating within the Kammlerstab itself. This intelligence would have been easily verifiable by Allies who would naturally have wanted to check its veracity by means of aerial reconnaissance of the installation sites presumably leaked to them by someone in the Kammlerstab.

Hans Kammler was said to have committed suicide near the end of the Second World War. Now, he is the subject of a similar theory to that which states Adolf Hitler’s suicide was faked. In this theory, actually moved to America with the full knowledge of the United States.

The reasoning for this alleged relocation revolves around the general’s area of expertise, which is centered on Hitler’s programs for the development of secret weapons. It is already known that Nazi scientists were recruited by the Allies for the betterment of various technologies. His knowledge would have been valuable to the stateside advancement of weaponry given his knowledge about the V1 and V2 rockets, retaliatory missiles that could have changed the face of the war if developed earlier.

The apparent falsification of his suicide was necessitated by his work on concentration camps such as Auschwitz, for which he helped to design their incinerator. Given the number of deaths to which he contributed, the name Hans Kammler made for himself would not have justified his acquisition by the United States in many people’s eyes, even following the German surrender. It would have appeared that the Allies were taking advantage of the same cumbrance on freedoms that they were actively fighting against.

If the theory on the alleged fake suicide holds true, then the captured Nazi general may have lent a hand in the modernization of numerous American weapons. His V2 rockets were known for devastating attacks against Britain. Hans Kammler may have gone on to bring similarly deadly rockets to the United States. Approaching the Cold War, America was in a rush to get the general onto their soil before he could be acquired by the Soviet Union.

The veracity of the claims that he lived and died in the United States following the war have not been confirmed, but the reasoning behind the claim appears to be logical. If Hans Kammler truly lived in America, it is possible that numerous advancements in weaponry during and after the Cold War were technically manufactured by Nazis.

While Obergruppenführer Kammler was busy dying four times in various locations by various means, another general was busy lunging his troops with the precision of a surgeon into the nerve centers of Kammler's black projects empire: General George S. Patton. His troops formed the spearhead of the Allied lance that, much to the surprise of the Nazi, Soviet, and Allied field commanders themselves, suddenly turned from its victorious drive on Berlin to a militarily questionable operation designed to take the alleged "Nazi Redoubt."

Hitler, during a conference with his generals in the Bunker in 1945, made the wild pronouncement, when questioned by one of them as to why the strongest and best formations left to the Wehrmacht were deployed, not in defense of Berlin, but of Prague, that Prague was the key to winning the war. Allied military intelligence also confirmed that the strongest SS Panzer formations were deployed in the vicinity of Prague, an order of battle that, on the plain face of things, made no military sense to them, other than, as the Allies' own estimates of the situation concluded, that Berlin had ceased to be an important economic and military target.

General Patton's US Third Army literally raced through Bavaria into Bohemia, making a beeline for the famous Skoda armaments works at Pilsen, all but blown off the map by Allied bombing raids.

Hitler boasted that Germany would deploy horrendous new weapons that would snatch victory from defeat at "five minutes past midnight".

By the spring of 1945, the Redoubt had ballooned to become a major military concern to the Allied High command, "despite the caveats from British and US military intelligence." Agoston traces the origin of the "Redoubt" theme of the postwar Allied Legend to the USA's Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, the precursor to the modern day CIA. The OSS had apparently not bothered, according to Agoston, to check out the sources of its intelligence or the truthfulness of the "Redoubt." The final decision to abandon Berlin as a military objective and drive south toward Thuringia was made by Eisenhower on 11 April  1945.

The date of General Eisenhower's decision is crucial, for it means that the military objective shifted from Berlin toward south central Germany after the alleged atom bomb test at Ohrdruf on 4 March 1945. It is therefore possible that the OSS was in receipt of extremely secret intelligence concerning this weapons program and its centers of production, for Patton drives his troops with unerring accuracy right toward this super-secret installations, many of them underground and carefully camouflaged. Given the sensitivity of the Manhattan Project within the structure of the Allied command, it is also plausible that the OSS decided not to share this information with the Supreme Allied Command, and proffered the "Redoubt" and "fleeing Nazis" and a transferred German war archives as a cover story to sell the Allied command on a shitf of objectives away from Berlin. If indeed the OSS "Redoubt" reports were a component of an OSS psychological operation designed against the Allies' own military command structure, designed to divert Allied military operations to a gold mine of military technology and research, then one and only one general was in a position to know the real, and the whole story about the Redoubt, and what was actually recovered in Thuringia, Pilsen, and Prague, and that was General George S Patton. Patton, as his troops entered the Skoda works at Pilsen and the underground factories and laboratories at the Three Corners region in Thuringia would have been privy to the top secret reports of his divisional commanders entering these super-secret Reich facilities. Patton would thus have a thorough first hand knowledge of the complete inventory of the Reich's most sensitive black programs. As Agoston himself notes, without seeming to realize the importance of his own observations in the light of post-war events, "the sudden switch in Allied planning.... brought at least one bonanza. The rapid eastward drive of the US Third Army brought to Kammler's secret metropolis well ahead of the Russians in whose designated zone it lay." The holy grail of all this research were the files and blueprints in the central coordination office of Kammler's black programs think tank inside the Skoda Works at Pilsen. And it is likely that General Patton therefore knew much of the general outlines of this treasure trove and what it portended for future secret weapons development. There is thus a direct and immediate link between General George S. Patton, General Hans Kammler, and the little-known world of top secret weapons research that Kammler headed. 

And this in turn may lend some credence to those who view General Patton's ironic death after the war as being something more than an ironic accident. The factual circumstances of Patton's death are plain enough. While on an inspection tour with his driver and Major General Hobart Gray on 9 December 1945, Patton's car swerved to avoid hitting a heavy US Army transport truck that had turned in front of them. Patton's driver, attention momentarily diverted away from the road by a remark that Patton himself had made, belatedly noticed the truck in front of them, and swerved the General's car to avoid a head-on collision.

None of the others involved in the accident were hurt, and all were able to walk away from the accident. Not so General Patton. He had suffered a broken neck, and the prognosis was paralysis from the neck down. From this point the General recovered rapidly at the military hospital in Frankfurt, making such good progress that until the afternoon of December 19th, his doctors were seriously considering moving him to Boston. But that afternoon his breathing difficulties increased dramatically and suddenly. On 20 December he suffered breathlessness and pallor, and Patton, who had had a prior history of embolism, died in his sleep on 21 December at 5:50 P.M.

This fact is adequately appreciated by Mayer and Mehner, "Das Geheimnis" and Ladislas Farago, "Patton: Ordeal and Triumph"

The fact that Patton alone of all the victims of the automobile accident suffered serious injuries, plus the fact of his recovery and then sudden decline in a military hospital, have fueled various conspiracy theories. One of these, that Patton knew of the Soviet shooting of American, Canadian, and British prisoners of war and threatened to expose the Allied knowledge and cover-up of the affair, was revealed by a Ukrainian defector with close ties to the Soviet KGB, who alleged that Patton's accident was no accident, and that the KGB had been behind it. Another version is similar, but has the OSS or other Allied entity performing the 'accident" and subsequent "medical complications".

General George S. Patton was assassinated to silence his criticism of allied war leaders claims new book  
America's greatest combat general of the Second World War, was assassinated after the conflict with the connivance of US leaders, according to a new book.


20 December 2008

The newly unearthed diaries of a colourful assassin for the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the CIA, reveal that American spy chiefs wanted Patton dead because he was threatening to expose allied collusion with the Russians that cost American lives.

The death of General Patton in December 1945, is one of the enduring mysteries of the war era. Although he had suffered serious injuries in a car crash in Manheim, he was thought to be recovering and was on the verge of flying home.

But after a decade-long investigation, military historian Robert Wilcox claims that OSS head General 'Wild Bill' Donovan ordered a highly decorated marksman called Douglas Bazata to silence Patton, who gloried in the nickname 'Old Blood and Guts'.

His book, "Target Patton", contains interviews with Mr Bazata, who died in 1999, and extracts from his diaries, detailing how he staged the car crash by getting a troop truck to plough into Patton's Cadillac and then shot the general with a low-velocity projectile, which broke his neck while his fellow passengers escaped without a scratch.

Mr Bazata also suggested that when Patton began to recover from his injuries, US officials turned a blind eye as agents of the NKVD, the forerunner of the KGB, poisoned the general.

Mr Wilcox told "The Sunday Telegraph" that when he spoke to Mr Bazata: "He was struggling with himself, all these killings he had done. He confessed to me that he had caused the accident, that he was ordered to do so by Wild Bill Donovan.

"Donovan told him: 'We've got a terrible situation with this great patriot, he's out of control and we must save him from himself and from ruining everything the allies have done.' I believe Douglas Bazata. He's a sterling guy".

Mr Bazata led an extraordinary life. He was a member of the Jedburghs, the elite unit who parachuted into France to help organise the Resistance in the run up to D-Day in 1944. He earned four purple hearts, a Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre three times over for his efforts.

After the war he became a celebrated artist who enjoyed the patronage of Princess Grace of Monaco and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.

He was friends with Salvador Dali, who painted a portrait of Bazata as Don Quixote.

He ended his career as an aide to President Ronald Reagan's Navy Secretary John Lehman, a member of the 9/11 Commission and adviser to John McCain's presidential campaign.

Mr Wilcox also tracked down and interviewed Stephen Skubik, an officer in the Counter-Intelligence Corps of the US Army, who said he learnt that Patton was on Stalin's death list. Skubik repeatedly alerted Donovan, who simply had him sent back to the US.

"You have two strong witnesses here," Mr Wilcox said. "The evidence is that the Russians finished the job".

The scenario sounds far fetched but Mr Wilcox has assembled a compelling case that US officials had something to hide. At least five documents relating to the car accident have been removed from US archives.

The driver of the truck was whisked away to London before he could be questioned and no autopsy was performed on Patton's body.

With the help of a Cadillac expert from Detroit, Mr Wilcox has proved that the car on display in the Patton museum at Fort Knox is not the one Patton was driving.

"That is a cover-up," Mr Wilcox said.

George Patton, a dynamic controversialist who wore ivory-handled revolvers on each hip and was the subject of an Oscar winning film starring George C. Scott, commanded the US 3rd Army, which cut a swathe through France after D-Day.

But his ambition to get to Berlin before Soviet forces was thwarted by supreme allied commander Dwight D. Eisenhower, who gave Patton's petrol supplies to the more cautious British General Bernard Montgomery.

Patton, who distrusted the Russians, believed Eisenhower wrongly prevented him closing the so-called Falaise Gap in the autumn of 1944, allowing hundreds of thousands of German troops to escape to fight again,. This led to the deaths of thousands of Americans during their winter counter-offensive that became known as the Battle of the Bulge.

In order to placate Stalin, the 3rd Army was also ordered to a halt as it reached the German border and was prevented from seizing either Berlin or Prague, moves that could have prevented Soviet domination of Eastern Europe after the war.

Mr Wilcox told "The Sunday Telegraph": "Patton was going to resign from the Army. He wanted to go to war with the Russians. The administration thought he was nuts.

"He also knew secrets of the war which would have ruined careers".

"I don't think Dwight Eisenhower would ever have been elected president if Patton had lived to say the things he wanted to say." Mr Wilcox added: "I think there's enough evidence here that if I were to go to a grand jury I could probably get an indictment, but perhaps not a conviction."

Charles Province, President of the George S. Patton Historical Society, said he hopes the book will lead to definitive proof of the plot being uncovered. He said: "There were a lot of people who were pretty damn glad that Patton died. He was going to really open the door on a lot of things that they screwed up over there".

If there is any truth in the idea of a conspiracy behind the ironic death of America's most decorated and celebrated general officer of the Second World War, then the explanation is likely to lie in the more esoteric and arcane secrets he and his intelligence officers uncovered in Thuringia and at the Skoda Works in Pilsen. Having performed a preliminary assessment of the second and third generation weaponry Kammler's scientists had begun to research, the OSS specialists who arrived at these sites must have immediately realized the material would require the tightest security and highest classification then possible, beyond that even of the Manhattan Project, not least because what was uncovered would give lie to the emerging Allied Legend of nuclear technological superiority. Patton was a potential threat to the security of this operation and a risk to the continued secret American development of Kammler's technology in conjunction with Operation Paperclip 

If there is truth to the conspiracy theories of Patton's incongruous death, then of all the theories, this would seem to be the most plausible motivation and explanation for the murder of America's famous general. Patton, and his famous mouth, had to be silenced.

It is significant in this respect that Mayer and Mehner report in "Das Geheimnis", that all of the documents of Patton's troops in Ohrdruf are still sealed and classified.

Located near Ohrdruf, Thuringia was located the S-III Führer headquarters. Constructed by approximately 15 - to 18,000 inmates of the nearby Ohrdruf, Espenfeld and Crawinkel concentration camps, from autumn 1944 to spring 1945, was a tunnel system over 1.5 miles in length.

Ohrdruf was reached by General Patton about 11 April  1945. Colonel Robert S. Allen accompanying him described the installations extensively in his book,   Lucky Forward: The History of Patton's 3rd US Army, Vanguard Press, New York, 1947:

"The underground installations were amazing. They were literally subterranean towns....There were four in and around Ohrdruf...others were reported in near-by villages. None were natural caves or mines. All were man-made military installations.

"Over 50 feet underground, the installations consisted of two and three stories several miles in length and extending like the spokes of a wheel. The entire hull structure was of massive reinforced concrete. Purpose of the installations was to house the High Command after it was bombed out of Berlin. This places also had paneled and carpeted offices, scores of large work and store rooms, tiled bathrooms with bath tubs and showers, flush toilets, electrically equipped kitchens, decorated dining rooms and mess halls, giant refrigerators, extensive sleeping quarters, recreation rooms, separate bars for officers and enlisted men."

The Atomic Energy Commission inspected various underground workings at Ohrdruf, and removed technical equipment before dynamiting surface entrances. The US authorities have classified all 1945 documents relating to Ohrdruf for a minimum period of 100 years. The fact that Ohrdruf was the location of the last Redoubt, was concealed absolutely.

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, High Command) and Luftwaffe war diaries and all copies for the period March 1945 have disappeared and are suspected to be in American custody.

Were the secrets of Kammler's SS empire worth changing the entire Allied operational plan at the end of the war, and were they worth the possible deliberate assassination of one of the war's most famous generals?

"Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B, Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure-trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11".

Suspiciously, Agoston's Freedom of Information Act request for the war diaries of Patton's armored units that captured the SS facilities in Pilsen and Prague could not be located in he US National Archives.. 

However, Agoston presents evidence that Allied intelligence, at least from the British point of view, had little to no knowledge of the Kammler Group. British Lieutenant Colonel James Brierley, commanding the first British intelligence group to arrive in Pilsen after its capture, stated that the Skoda plant workers and engineers themselves reported that everything was microfilmed, that the buildings which housed their blueprints and development projects had been demolished, and also that the files had been stored outside Pilsen. 

Destroyed by whom? And stored outside Pilsen by whom? Presumably by the SS itself. It is perhaps pertinent to this idea that many of the reports of Kammler's death place him in the area, not to die, but to remove the most sensitive data and to vouchsafe it for security.

At this point it is necessary to say something about Agoston's own thesis concerning the disappearance of the Kammler Staff's files. The whole thesis of Agoston's book is obvious from its title, i.e., that in the confusion of the transfer of the Skoda Works from American to Russian military occupation, the Kammler Group's entire secret inventory was handed over to the Soviet Union. This  much is recounted to Agoston by Voss. However, if Kammler had previously removed, or even duplicated, the most sensitive items, blueprints, and papers and secreted them somewhere, as would seem to be indicated by the Czech reports to British intelligence, then it is likely that all the Soviets received were the table scraps. Kammler had previously removed the most sensitive items, and Patton's men, and presumably the OSS, would have thoroughly scoured the remaining material.

Another possibility thus emerges in the "conspiracy" view of Patton's death. Could he have been assassinated because he himself was the point man to bring Kammler and his secrets and technicians and scientists into the emerging Operation Paperclip? While we will probably never know for sure, it is interesting to note that when Dr. Voss gave "the full story of the secrets leakage at Pilsen and Kammler's disappearance to US Intelligence in West Germany," he was informed "at the highest level to keep the matter under wraps, along with the briefings he than gave US Intelligence of he areas covered by the SS research at Pilsen." Who was it that debriefed Voss for US military intelligence? None other than fellow general officer Lieutenant General Lucius D. Clay, a man well known to Patton.

What happened to Dr. Voss after the war? Perhaps not unusually, he became involved in a joint CIA-West German BND (Bundesnachrichtendienst, West Germany's version of the CIA) effort to build armaments plants for Egypt's Gamel Abdul Nasser, and to train its army. Voss became the overall coordinator of an effort to supply Egypt with former Wehrmacht officers and the latest in missile technology. Also involved was former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schacht, father-in-law to famous SS commando, and later coordinator of the notorious ODESSA {Organization der Ehemalige SS Angehdriger or Organization of Former SS Members), Otto Skorzeny. This effort was part of a much broader postwar effort on the part of the West German government to expand its markets for high technology military equipment to the Arab-Muslim world, a drive that has continuing political repercussions down to our own day. There is more than meets the eye in this postwar SS-Arab connection.

Agoston notes that this secrecy order to Voss kept him from disclosing the story until after Voss' death.

In any case, taken together the picture of the postwar behavior and associations of Dr. Wilhelm Voss, the multiple "deaths" of Obergruppenführer Kammler, his more likely disappearance into  another black programs empire, and the ironic if not suspicious death of General George Patton are further corroboration that the Nazi Reich was up to far more than V-ls and V-2s. It was in the possession of prototypical technologies and military capabilities of such extreme power and sophistication that many of these secrets remain classified.

One of the most strange objects the Germans were experimenting on was a device that was known simply as "The Bell." So sensitive and secret was this device, that when it was evacuated from its underground secret laboratory in Lower Silesia prior to the Russian occupation of the area, the SS shot the approximately 60 scientists - doubtless on Kammler's orders - that were involved with this strange object. 

The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter. Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks. So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed.

Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housed below ground in a room bricked and tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine. When Nick Cook was shown the installation in which the Bell was housed, he was also informed of its high electrical consumption. 

What was the mysterious "Xerum 525?" Recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study t he resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields. These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time. Close to the Bell's underground testing bunker the Germans had built a large concrete Henge-like structure, in the pillars of which were high grade steel hooks, an obvious testing frame for what must have been an extremely powerful propulsion device.

What happened to the Bell? No one knows. Like Kammler, it goes completely missing at the end of the war, and its scientists, as already stated, were murdered to a man by the SS to keep whatever precious secrets it, and they, had uncovered.

-- from Joseph P. Farrell, "Reich of the Black Sun"

Roswell was not aliens - it was the Nazis, according to a German documentary
By Allan Hall in Berlin
14 October 2014 

A German TV documentary being screened on Wednesday night claims the mysterious UFO 'Roswell Incident' in the USA nearly 70 years ago was the result of experiments with ultra-secret Nazi rocket technology.

The Roswell Incident was reported on 8 July 1947 in the town of the same name in New Mexico.

Initially thought to be the crash landing of a flying saucer, military authorities later said it was a downed weather balloon, but conspiracy theorists down the years have always insisted that the military was covering up an alien visitation.

But now a documentary entitled "UFOs in the Third Reich" claims the incident was linked to testing of the 'Bell,' a copper coloured aircraft three metres in diameter, the core of which was a futuristic propulsion unit using electric particles.

   UFOs in the Third Reich - Documentary - Will Disclose Roswell UFO Crash  

A new documentary made by a German film maker will claim the Roswell UFO crash was in fact
the well documented "Nazi Bell" and it will be packed with evidence to suggest so.
UFODI will be publishing the documentary on our website when it hits the big screen so stay tuned to
www.ufodi.com. Be the first to view the documentary, we will disclose in due course
when the documentary will be released for world viewing.

The documentary screened on the N24 channel claims the craft was the forerunner of the Stealth fighter of today and was crafted by scores of V2 rocket experts who were spirited to America at the end of the war to give the USA the edge over the Soviet Union in rocket technology.

One of them was allegedly a mass Nazi killer, S.S. General Hans Kammler who was head of construction and defence projects´in the Third Reich and as such planned the forced labour factories at Auschwitz and the secret V-2 rocket plants inside Germany.

The German documentary draws on a vast wealth of archival material. One of the experts is Igor Witkowski, a Polish former journalist and historian of military and aerospace technology.

In his book, "'Prawda O Wunderwaffe"' in 2000, he wrote extensively of the "Bell-shaped Craft" that was being created by the Nazis, and that Hitler wanted the best scientists and engineers at his disposal.

German engineer Georg Klein claimed that such designs had been developed during the Third Reich.

Klein, who went on to have a distinguished postwar career as an aeronautical engineer, said; "I don't consider myself a crackpot or eccentric or someone given to fantasies. This is what I saw, with my own eyes; a Nazi UFO."

W.A. Harbinson notes that "alleged eye witness Georg Klein, a former engineer with Albert Speer's Ministry for Armament and Ammunition . . told the press that he had actually seen the test flight of the Schriever disc, or one similar, near Prague on 14 February 1945."

A CIA report dated 27 May 1954, states:
 
"A German newspaper (not further identified) recently published an interview with George Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of 'flying saucers' carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated that he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted 'flying saucer' took off and reached a speed of 1,3000 miles per hour within 3 minutes. The experiments resulted in three designs: one designed by Miethe was a disc-shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the centre of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the 'flying saucer' project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants. Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the US at present".

The German newspaper appears to have been "Welt am Sonntag" for (different dates are given) 25 or 26 April 1953. The article is titled "Erste 'Flugscheibe' flog 1945 in Prag".

British and American bomber crews, who ranged free in the skies over Germany towards the end of the war to deliver their lethal cargoes, also reported strange sightings over enemy territory when debriefed back at their bases - now thought to have been test flights of the Bell.

The programme explores the possibility that the Roswell Incident may have been the crash of another Nazi-era flying saucer known the Schriever-Habermohl model.

Rudolf Schriever was an engineer and test pilot, Otto Habermohl an engineer.

This project was centred in Prague between 1941 and 1943, but the plans for it was taken to America at war's end.

Initially a Luftwaffe project, it eventually fell under the auspices of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Kammler.

Eyewitnesses captured by the Allies after WW2 claimed to have seen the saucer produced in Prague fly on several occasions.

Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to the Schriever-Habermohl project, stated 15 prototypes were built in all.

  

Josef Andreas Epp Omega Diskus

He described how a central cockpit surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes formed a circle.

"The vanes were held together by a band at the outer edge of the wheel-like device. The pitch of the vanes could be adjusted so that during take off more lift was generated by increasing their angle from a more horizontal setting. In level flight the angle would be adjusted to a smaller angle, similar to the way helicopter rotors operate.

"The wing-vanes were to be set in rotation by small rockets placed around the rim like a pinwheel. Once rotational speed was sufficient, lift-off was achieved. After the craft had risen to some height the horizontal jets or rockets were ignited.

"After this the wing-blades would be allowed to rotate freely as the saucer moved forward as in an auto-gyrocopter.

"In all probability, the wing-blades speed, and so their lifting value, could also be increased by directing the adjustable horizontal jets slightly upwards to engage the blades, thus spinning them faster at the digression of the pilot," he said.

Nazi spaceship film sparks UFO debate
A new sci-fi film about Nazis has reignited a debate in Germany about Hitler's development of UFOs
By Allan Hall in Berlin
The Telegraph
17 November 2010

The Finnish sci-fi comedy "Iron Sky"' centres on real-life SS officer Hans Kammler who was said to have made a significant breakthrough in antigravity experiments towards the end of WW2.

The film relates how, from a secret base built in the Antarctic, the first Nazi spaceships were launched in late 1945 to found the military base Schwarze Sonne – Black Sun – on the dark side of the Moon.

This base was to to be used to build a powerful invasion fleet and return to take over the Earth once the time was right, in this case 2018.



But a new report out this week in Germany in the magazine "PM" purports that there is "strong evidence" that a Nazi UFO programme was well advanced.

Hitler ordered Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring to develop the super weapon that would change the war.

The PM report quotes eyewitnesses who believe they saw a flying saucer marked with the Iron Cross of the German military flying low over the Thames in 1944.

At the time the "New York Times" wrote about a "mysterious flying disc" with photos of the device seen travelling at extremely high speeds over the high-rise buildings.

The best known of the Nazi UFO projects was the Schriever-Habermohl scheme, named for Rudolf Schriever and Otto Habermohl.

Initially a Luftwaffe project, it fell under the auspices of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Hans Kammler.

Eyewitnesses captured by the Allies after WW2 claimed to have seen the saucer produced in Prague fly on several occasions in early 1945.

 

 

Unsettled History: The Nazi Bell Aircraft in American Skies
By Paul Darin
Epoch Times
8 February 2014

The Nazi Bell, an aircraft involving antigravity technology, disappeared after World War II, but crafts with the same design have allegedly been sighted across the United States, leading some to believe that the U.S. government has the Nazi Bell and is experimenting with it.

It is said that during the Nazi occupation of Poland, the Nazis—specifically Nazi scientist Wernher von Braun and SS General Hans Kammler—were working on a craft that used electromagnetism as its propulsion. The craft was known as "Die Glocke" or "The Bell."

Some sketches of the craft have survived, according to the "History Channel", and they specify dimensions of 10 feet high and 5 feet in diameter.

There is no evidence to support the project’s use during World War II, but there is evidence of its development. As Germany was being invaded by the Allies, the entire bell project—along with project leader Kammler—disappeared.

Conspiracy theorists suggest that the Nazi Bell was taken to the United States—as were many German scientists—and that the United States has continued research on the technology.

Both von Braun and Kammler were developers of advanced German weapons and rocketry, including the V–2 rocket. Von Braun surrendered to allied forces during Germany’s fall and was enlisted in the U.S. government for advanced propulsion and rocket development. Von Braun headed up the Saturn rocket development for NASA and played a significant role in putting Americans on the moon with the successful Saturn V rocket used in Apollo 11, according to PBS.

UFO supporters believe the German Bell craft is related to the UFO crash in Kecksburg, Pa., on 9 December 1965. Perhaps the most famous UFO incident second to Roswell, the Kecksburg incident involved many eye witnesses who saw a fiery streak overhead and a crash. There were civilian responders to the crash before the Army, National Security Agency, Department of Defense, and NASA showed up to claim the object, according to UFO Evidence.

Allegedly, first responders included Kecksburg volunteer firefighters, who saw an acorn-shaped object half-buried where it went down in the woods. Other residents claim to have made it to the site before authorities and reported seeing a golden-bronze colored, acorn-shaped craft large enough to fit just one occupant and marked with strange hieroglyphic writing. The object appeared to be one solid piece of metal with no rivets or seams, according to UFO Evidence.

Hundreds of witnesses were near the crash site but were reportedly turned away by military personnel. Some witnesses saw the object leaving on a flatbed truck. In 2005, NASA revealed that the object was a downed Soviet satellite, contrary to their earlier claims, according to "Today in History". NASA also claimed that all records of the incident were misplaced sometime in the 1990s.

Other sightings of bell-shaped UFOs over America include four bell-shaped objects sighted over Maryland on 3 April 2009, and a more recent domed, bell-shaped UFO floating over Colorado on 15 January  2013.

Perhaps the origin of these bell-shaped objects—be it Nazi-designed, American reverse-engineered, or extraterrestrial—will never be known, even though these objects continue to be seen throughout America and abroad.


The incident remains unexplained to this day and there have been several attempts to reveal the identity of the object that crashed in the woods near Kecksburg. Among them is a particularly interesting theory stating the craft was in fact Die Glocke, commonly referred to as the Nazi Bell, a technological device developed during World War 2 based on alien technology. Supposedly, the craft was able to travel through time and had been used by Nazi SS officer Hans Kammler to escape the Allied Forces in the final days of the war.

Disappearance

In May 1945, Kammler disappeared. Some reports suggest that he was assassinated by a member of his staff, acting on orders from Himmler not to allow personnel with detailed knowledge of the rocket programme to fall into Allied hands. Others indicate that he may have been killed in action or committed suicide somewhere around Prague. The fact that his exact fate is unknown and that his body was never recovered led to some speculation that he continued his work in the United States after the war, where it is alleged he worked on anti-gravity and other advanced devices.

Tom Agoston's book "Blunder!" details all four of the supposed death scenarios of Hans Kammler. These may well have been simply misdirection, as the various tall tales regarding the death of Odilo Globocnik have been definitively proven to be.

Odilo Lotario Globocnik or Odilo Lothar Ludwig Globocnik, also Germanized Globotschnig(g), nicknamed Globus was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. As an associate of Adolf Eichmann, he had a leading role in Operation Reinhardt, which saw the murder of over one million mostly Polish Jews during the Holocaust in Nazi extermination camps Majdanek, Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec. Historian Michael Allen described him as "the vilest individual in the vilest organization ever known".

There are indications that Globocnik may have been the originator of the extermination camp industrialized murder concept and the one who suggested it to Himmler. At a two-hour meeting with Himmler on 13 October 1941, Globocnik received verbal approval to start construction work on the Belzec extermination camp, the first such camp in the General Government.

Shortly beforehand, in September 1941, Globocnik had been visited by Phillip Bouhler and Victor Brack, the top officials in the Führer Chancellery responsible for the Action T4 "euthanasia" program, which had been using gas chambers disguised as shower rooms to execute many of its victims.

On or about 1 October 1941, Globocnik had written a memorandum to Himmler containing proposals for actions against the Jews "of a security policy nature," and the 13 October meeting was held to discuss this memorandum and related subjects. A colleague's contemporaneous letter reflects Globocnik's state of mind at the time of the 13 October meeting: Globocnik then considered it necessary to undertake a "cleansing of the entire [General Government] of Jews and Poles" and was "full of good and far-reaching plans" to accomplish this.

There are even indications that Globocnik may have begun a crude experimental gassing facility in the woods near Belzec shortly before his mid-October meeting with Himmler. Globocnik at the 13 October 1941 meeting proposed exterminating the Jews in assembly-line fashion in a concentration camp utilizing gas chambers. On 14 October 1941 – the day after he had met with Globocnik – Himmler held a five-hour meeting with Reinhard Heydrich to discuss "executions", following which there was a proliferation of other extermination camp gassing sites. Days later, Himmler forbade all further Jewish emigration from Reich territory "in view of the forthcoming 'Final Solution' of the Jewish question."

Himmler, who was responsible for the new racial order in Hitler’s conquered territories, showed signs of uncertainty about the development of events.

"In a report to Hitler of May 1940 he totally ruled out the 'Bolshevistic method of physical annihilation of a people and that such a policy could not even be imagined, because it is completely "un-Germanic". Hitler noted on the document’s border: "Absolutely right", and told Himmler he could show it to the other Nazi leaders as being
congruent with his “line of thinking”

-- Yehuda Bauer, Professor of Holocaust Studies and Director of the Holocaust Museum of Yad Vashem (Jerusalem) in his book "Buying Jews Freedom?" Jewish Publishing House, Frankfurt 1996

"The Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942, where, it was claimed for over a third of a century, the decision to "exterminate" European Jews, disappeared from 1984 on from the writings of even the most ferocious enemies of the 'revisionists'. On this point, they too had to 'revise' their history : it was at the Stuttgart Congress of May 1984, where that "interpretation" was dropped.

Source: Eberhard Jäckel and Jürgen Rohwer."Der Mord an der Juden im Zweiten Weltkrieg" ('The murder of Jews during the Second World War") Source : DVA. 1985

"In thousands of newspaper articles, books, textbooks, radio broadcasts, memorial speeches and television shows, the claim has been advanced that the mass murder of the Jews was decided on at the Wannsee Conference, or at the least, that the plan to carry out Adolf Hitler's order in this respect had been worked out there. As well, it is claimed, the means of killing had been discussed and the establishment of extermination camps was decided on. This is not in the protocol, and leading Holocaust historians are now repudiating it".

-- Eberhard Jäckel, "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung", 22 June 1992

The most recent spokesman for the orthodox antirevisionist historians, the chemist Claude Pressac, confirmed this new revision of orthodoxy. He wrote on page 35 of his book :"Les crematoires d'Auschwitz" (CNRS editions, 1993):

"The Wannsee conference was held in Berlin on 20 January. If an action of 'driving back' the Jews towards the East was planned, with the evocation of a 'natural' elimination through work, nobody then spoke of liquidation on an industrial scale. During the days and the weeks that followed, the Auschwitz Bauleitung received neither a call, a telegram or a letter demanding the study of an installation adapted to that end.

And even, in his "recapitulative chronology", he indicates on 20 January, 1942: "Wannsee Conference on the driving back of the Jews towards the East".

The "extermination" was revised : it was a question of "driving back".

It is equally remarkable that, in all this book setting itself the goal of "proving" the thesis of extermination, there was no question either of the document which, after that of Wannsee, was supposedly the most decisive: Göring's letter to Heydrich of 31 July 1941, in which it was asserted that the "final solution" meant "extermination", and not the transfer out of Europe.

Göring protested against the English translation of the German word "Gesamtlösung", meaning general solution, as "Final Solution", which is "Endlösung"; this led Chief US Prosecutor Robert H. Jackson, at the Nuremberg Trials, to acknowledge the falsification and to reestablish the true meaning.

Charles Bewley, in "Hermann Göring" (Göttingen, 1956) has pointed out that no evidence was found at Nuremberg to substantiate the charge that Göring was involved in the extermination program.

Appointed Higher SS and Police Leader of the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral in the German-occupied portion of Italy, he converted an old rice mill at the outskirts of Trieste, his hometown, to the detention center complete with a crematorium, known as Risiera di San Sabba (In Slovene: Riþarna),] where thousands of Italian Jews, Partisans, and other political dissidents would be interrogated, tortured, and murdered after the 1943 downfall of Benito Mussolini. Having looted some of the stolen assets from the labor camps, he also took with him a number of his staff from Operation Reinhardt, including Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl and Franz Reichleitner.

In Slovene Littoral, Slovene Partisans were fought both by Germans and by Littoral Home Guard which was also under Globocnik's direct command and provided Germans with lists of locations of Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation hideouts and suspicious individuals (described as "propagandist", "husband is a Communist")[

With the advance of Allied troops, Globocnik retreated into Austrian Carinthia and finally went into hiding high in the mountains in an alpine hut near Weissensee, still in company of his closest staff members. Globocnik was tracked down and captured by a British armoured cavalry unit, the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, at the Möslacher Alm, overlooking the Weissensee on 31 May 1945. Globocnik was taken to Paternion to be interrogated, and at around 11:30 hours committed suicide by biting on a cyanide capsule. At least two contemporary photographs show Globocnik's body shortly after his death, and there are several reliable reports, including the Regimental Diary and Field Reports of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, detailing the circumstances of his capture and suicide.

Captured with him were seven men, including Georg Michalsen, Friedrich Rainer, Ernst Lerch, Hermann Höfle, Karl Hellesberger, Hugo Herzog and Friedrich Plöb.

His body was taken to be buried in a local churchyard, but the priest reportedly refused to have 'the body of such a man' resting in consecrated ground. A grave was dug outside the churchyard, next to an outer wall, and the body was buried without ceremony.

Urban Legends

Prior to the 1980s, there was debate over the circumstances of Globocnik's survival – some had speculated that his death in either early May or June 1945 was at the hands of either partisans or a Jewish revenge squad.

A false version of Globocnik's fate has circulated indicating that he was turned over to U.S. intelligence by the British. This is based on an "official US document signed by US CIC S/A Operations Officer Andrew L. Venters, dated 27 October 1948, more than three years AFTER his supposed death". However this document was exposed as a forgery in the 1980s by the investigative writer and historian, Gitta Sereny; she gives all details in a long article in the "Observer" newspaper.

Conspiracy Theory

A recent (2001) book by Nick Cook, "The Hunt for Zero Point" investigates the possibility that Kammler was brought to the United States along with many other German scientists as part of the program known as Operation Paperclip.

There are no known facts that support this theory. There have been no "Kammler sightings" since the end of the war, contrary to the cases of other Nazi war criminals such as Mengele. In addition, Kammler was not a physicist or rocket engineer. He was primarily an administrator and as such would have few skills of value to the Americans.

There are reports that, in the closing days of the Reich that Kammler used a long-range multi-engined aircraft to ship a large body of research material and prototypes out of the Reich. This would perhaps tie in with reports of a Ju 290 (which is the most likely candidate for such a plane type) making a ferry flight of high-ranking Nazi personnel from Prague to Barcelona in Spain. References to Kammler in the official literature relating to the Nuremberg trials have been deleted. In fact, despite the knowledge that Kammler was, in many ways, number three in the Nazi hierarchy in 1945, his name comes up only once, in an indirect reference by Dornberger, during the war crimes trials, including the trial of his subordinates in December 1957 in Arnsberg, Westphalia.

Dornberger was to have stood trial as a war criminal for launching A4 (V-2) rockets against London but was acquitted. He maintained that it was Kammler who gave the orders to target London.

The Central War Crimes Office for Nordrhein-Westfalen conducted an inquiry into Kammler's involvement with the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, issuing the following statement to the Senior Public Prosecutor in Köln on 3 October 1963: "...the death of the accused (as documented by the District Court of Berlin-Charlottenburg) has completed the execution of this case..."   

 

Nazi Germany built at least four "Bells" during WW2.

Of these four machines, three were captured by the Americans in 1945 and the fourth was evacuated by Kammler to Norway on a plane.

The first was captured at Burggrub near Bayreuth on 14 April 1945 by Patton's third Army.

The next at Dr Walter Dallenbach's research centre in Bisingen where Company B of the US 1269th Engineers Battalion dismantled it from 22-28 April 1945. They spun a false story to the French of heavy fighting at Bisingen to keep the Free French away.

The third was captured by Col Borris Pash with his 44th Armoured Division at Roggendorf, Austria about 7 May 1945. This machine was codenamed Quartz II and used by the SS with a team of scientists from Vienna to transmute Uranium 238 into Neptunium from which it would decay into Plutonium.

The fourth machine was was originally installed below ground from 1 November 1943 under  Gandau airfield on the  outskirts of Breslau (now Wroclaw) beside Neumakt. It was part of Heeres Versuchanstalt No.10 and Prof Walther Gerlach led the project then known as Thor. It was first operated in May 1944.

In November 1944 it was shifted to an especially built complex under Fürstenstein Castle, where it operated until shifted again on 18 December 1944 to Wenceslas mine at Lyudvikovitse.

Following the war Professor Manfred von Ardenne led two Soviet scientists Nicolai Flyerov (aka N.I. Frolov) and Igor Kurchatov to the Wenceslas mine and gave them a description of installing what he called a cyclotron in the mine.

This mine was abandoned before the war. Above ground there was a power station with two steam cooling towers. The bases of these have become known by various names like the "Henge" after Stonehenge, or the Fly Trap. Bizarre claims are made by some that these are related to Nazi UFOs.  

Near the mine entrance Nobel Dynamit AG operated a bullet manufacturing plant. Wenceslas mine was also known by it's codename Komplex Milkow. A short distance away was Ludwikowice. The area in wartime had been part of Germany's Silesia region, but after the war most Germans were forced into East Germany and their homes were turned over to Polish refugees. In German the village was called Ludwigsdorf

1945: Flight of the Ostara-Nazi Flying Saucer?

On the grey morning of 8 January 1945, a flock of reporters, pencils and notepads at the ready, hovered around Admiral Jonas Ingram, commander of the Eastern Sea Frontier, in his wardroom aboard a warship in New York harbour. The scribes had come for what Ingram's public-relations staff had promised would be 'a historic press conference.'

Ingram, a heavyset, flat-nosed old salt who had gained national recognition as football coach at the (U.S.) Naval Academy (in Annapolis, Maryland), was one of the Navy's colourful characters--and most outspoken. Seated behind a long table, Ingram said: "Gentlemen, I have reason to assume that the Nazis are getting ready to launch a strategic attack on New York and Washington by robot bombs."

There was a gasp of astonishment from the reporters.

"I am here to tell you that these attacks are not only possible, but probable as well, and that the (USA's) East Coast is likely to be buzz-bombed within the next thirty or sixty days."

Ingram eyed his listeners, then added grimly: "But we're ready for them. The thing to do is not to get excited about it. (The buzz-bombs) might knock out a high building or two, might create a fire hazard, and most certainly would cause casualties. But (the buzz-bombs) cannot seriously affect the progress of the war."

The hard-nosed Ingram added that "it may be only ten or twelve buzz-bombs, but they may come before we can stop them."

"At any rate," the admiral concluded, "I'm springing the cat from the bag to let the Huns know that we are ready for them!"

Coach Ingram's announcement triggered a media sensation.

The following day, 9 January 1945, the "New York Times" ran the story with the headline:

ROBOT BOMB ATTACKS HERE HELD POSSIBLE

But the war in Europe ended on 8 May 1945, and no Nazi rocket came plummeting out of orbit to crash in Manhattan.

Was Coach Ingram given to flights of fancy?

Not at all.

Allied intelligence knew that the Germans were working on a "New York Rocket." At least twenty of these large rockets were built at the SS underground base at Nordhausen. What happened to them is one of the enduring mysteries of World War II.

In his 1952 book, "V2--Der Schuss ins Weltall", Major General Walter Dornberger, commander of the Peenemünde Rocket Research Institute, described the "New York Rocket" in detail.

He wrote: "Thus the A-9 came into being...the missile was planned to reach at a height of about 20 kilometres (12 miles), a maximum speed of 4,400 kilometres per hour (2,800 miles per hour) and then go into a shallow curving glide with a peak of nearly 30 kilometres (18 miles)."

On arrival over the target at a height of 5 kilometres (3 miles), it was planned to dive vertically, like the "V-1, a primitive rocket-powered cruise missile, best known in World War II as "the buzz bomb".

"A better plan, however, and one which greatly improved range, was to construct the A-10, weighing 87 tons and with a total propellant capacity of 62 tons, as the first step of the combined A-9/A-10.

"The A-9 was placed on top of the A-10. The latter had a thrust of 200 tons for 50 to 60 seconds and gave the rocket a speed of 4,400 kilometres per hour. After the exhaustion of the first step (stage or A-10), the A-9 would be ignited and lift out of the A-10.

   A9/10 drawing dated 10 June 1941. Hypersonic A9 stage highlighted

"Once we reached this stage (in the blueprints), the horses fairly bolted with us. With our big rocket motors and step (multi-stage) rockets, we could build space ships which would circle the earth like moonsat a height of 500 kilometres (300 miles) and at speeds of 30,000 kilometres per hour (18,000 miles per hour). Space stations and glass spheres containing the embalmed bodies of the pioneers of rocket development and space travel could be put into permanent orbits around the earth. An expedition to the moon was a popular topic, too.

"Then we dreamed of atomic energy, which would at last give us the necessary drive for flight into the infinity of space, to the very stars."

Amazingly, the gang at Peenemünde drew up these blueprints during 1942 and 1943. In his book, Gen. Dornberger, a child of the Nineteenth Century, admits to being a little "disconcerted" by these off-duty bull sessions, in which Wernher von Braun, Willy Ley, Klaus Reidel and even Hitler's favourite aviatrix, Hannah Reitsch, "chatted with such easy familiarity about outer space, the moon, the planets and what forms extraterrestrial life might take."

The question remains: did the A-9/A-10 combo ever make it into space?

There are a handful of clues that it did.

In 1968, 'Ballantine' published a photo on the back cover of their paperback book on German secret weapons of World War II.

It shows a swept-winged A-9 on top of a cluster of rocket boosters.  Flames pour out of five nozzles on the array. It has the hazy appearance of being shot with a long telephoto lens.

This photo is similar to the Soviet rockets then being launched from Baikonur.  Unfortunately, with nothing in the photo's background to offer a size comparison, there is no telling whether the "customized" Nazi rocket is full-sized or merely a much smaller test model.

  

   Swedish newspaper "Aftonbladet", dated 10/10/52 It describes a German saucer built by Wernher von Braun
at Peenemünde, six meters in diameter, which lifted off in April 1944.
The article states that high fuel consumption was the major problem,
a problem which would be solved utilizing atomic power

On 10 October 1952, the Swedish newspaper "Aftonbladet" reported that a space rocket had been launched from an SS facility near Prague (now the capital of the Czech Republic) in February 1945. The vehicle sounds suspiciously like an A-9/A-10. And the launch came about a month after Admiral Ingram's press conference in New York City.

During the summer of 1943, the Peenemünde research centre was seized by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. German rocketry became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the SS. During a trip to Berlin on 6 September 1943, Gen. Dornberger met his new boss, 42-year-old SS-Brigadeführer Hans Kammler.

Dornberger wrote: "He had the slim figure of a cavalryman, neither tall nor short. In his early forties, broad-shouldered and narrow in the hips, with bronzed, clear-cut features, and a high forehead under dark hair slightly streaked with grey and brushed straight back. Dr. Kammler had piercing and restless brown eyes, a lean curved beak of a nose, and a strong mouth, the underlip thrust forward as though in defiance. That mouth indicated brutality, derision, disdain and overweening pride. The chin was well-moulded and prominent.

"One's first impression was of a virile, handsome and captivating personality. He looked like some hero of the Renaissance, a condotierre of the period of the civil wars in northern Italy."

Kammler was Himmler's most trusted aide. He had a reputation of being the man who could get things done. In 1942, for example, Kammler, an architect by trade, had personally designed and supervised the construction of the giant Vernichtungslager (destruction camp) called Auschwitz II, with its capacity for 200,000 prisoners, at Birkenau in southern Poland.

Now Himmler had new work for him. The Reichsführer-SS wanted an underground factory "completely impervious to Allied bombs" that would build all of the contraptions in the Peenemünde gang's "blue sky" blueprints. It is not known if Hitler approved of this or not--it's part of what Colonel-General Erich von Manstein once called "the hermetically-sealed SS-Reich--but Himmler was determined to build a workable spacecraft.

Himmler "urged Pohl to build factories for the production of war materials in natural caves and underground tunnels immune to enemy bombing and instructed him to hollow out workshop and factory space in all SS stone quarries, suggesting that by the summer of 1944 they should have the 'new cavemen' installed in the greatest number of 'uniquely bomb-proof work sites'..."

Brigadeführer Hans Kammler succeeded in creating underground workshops and living quarters from a cave system in the Hartz mountains in central Germany in what (Albert) Speer, writing to congratulate him, called "an almost impossibly short period of two months" a feat, he continued, "unsurpassable even by American standards".

With Kammler at the helm, production of V-1 and V-2 weapons went into high gear.

In his book "V-1, V-2: Hitler's Vengeance on London", David Johnson noted that  "
During the (V-1) Flying Bomb assault, from mid-June to early September 1944, 2,419 of the pilotless aircraft crash-dived into London. Rail and transportation networks were seriously disrupted. War production fell off."

"Between 8 September 1944 and 27 March 1945, 517 V-2 rockets struck London, with another 378 falling short of their target and impacting in Essex. Throughout southern England, a grand total of 1,054 came down. In London alone over 2,700 civilians were dead from the rockets.

"On 27 March 1945, the last V-2 to hit Britain came down on Orpington, Kent, about 20 miles (32 kilometres) south-east of London."

On the night of 17 December (1944) a V-2 crashed into the Rex cinema in Antwerp (Belgium) during a crowded show. When Hitler was informed that 1,100 people, including 700 (Allied) soldiers had been killed, by a characteristic irony he was reluctant to credit the report. "That would finally be the first successful launch," he observed sarcastically, "But it is so fairytale that my scepticism keeps me from believing it. Who is the informer? Is he paid by the launch crew?"

But if Hitler had little faith in the V-2, the same cannot be said of Himmler and Kammler. Himmler gave his aide everything he needed to keep the rocket program going.

Kammler still believed that he alone, with his Army Corps and the weapons over which he had absolute authority, could prevent the imminent collapse, postpone a decision and even turn the scales. The (V-2) transports still moved without respite to the "operational area" in the Netherlands, Dornberger wrote. "Convoys of motor vehicles bridged the gaps in the railways. Kammler's supply columns, equipped with infrared devices that enabled them to see in the dark, rumbled along the Dutch highways."

Himmler's interest in space flight grew out of his personal commitment to the occult. When he had been appointed leader of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squad) in 1929, the group had been a small unit within the larger Sturmabteilung or Brownshirt militia, a kind of Secret Service devoted to the protection of Hitler and the Nazi leadership. By 1945, however, Himmler had transformed the SS into "a state within a state." Under his direction, the SS had become the Schwarze Sonne (Black Sun), an order of mystics that numbered in the low millions.

In his book "Hitler's Flying Saucers", author Henry Stevens pointed out: "The Black Sun to these initiated individuals was a physical body like our visible sun except that the Black Sun was not visible to the naked eye...The Black Sun is sometimes represented symbolically as a black sphere out of which eight arms extend. Such is its most famous rendition on the mosaic floor at Wewelsburg Castle which served as the spiritual home of the SS."

Himmler's scientists were influenced by some ideas originating in Asia. Tibet and India are the suspects in question. UFOs have been reported over Mongolia, Tibet and India for centuries. The ancient Indians even claimed to have constructed aircraft which resembled flying saucers. These saucers are called Vimanas.

Since his days in the mystical group Artamen in the early 1920s, Himmler had been fascinated with the scriptures of ancient India. As a reader of the "Rig-Veda" and the "Mahabharata", he would have been familiar with the tales of rishis (Hindu wizards) visiting other worlds in outer space. So perhaps it's no surprise that he sent the German SS-Ahnenerbe, an organization whose purpose was associated with researching German ancestry, out (on) expeditions to the East with the express purpose of acquiring ancient, hidden knowledge.

Kammler transferred Gen. Dornberger and Wernher von Braun into the Wasserfall anti-aircraft rocket program in late 1944. Meanwhile, work continued on the Schriever-Miethe V-7 flying disc. With help from another mystical group, the Thule Gesellschaft, the project developed a craft called the Haunebu-1. This saucer "had a 25-meter diameter, a speed of 4,800 kilometers per hour (3,000 miles per hour) and carried a crew of nine men."

In November 1943, a second saucer, the Haunebu-2, was built, slightly larger and could travel 6,000 kilometres per hour (3,600 miles per hour) for fifty-five hours.

A year later, in early December 1944, Gruppe Kammler unveiled its showpiece, the Haunebu-3, which "had a diameter of 71 meters (234 feet), and could reach a speed of 40,000 kilometers per hour (25,000 miles per hour)" and remain in space "for up to eight weeks, carrying a crew of 32 men.

Unaware of the progress of the Schriever-Miethe team, Gen. Dornberger proposed to suspend work on the A-9/A-10 "New York Rocket." The order was immediately countermanded. "But now, at the end of 1944, Kammler demanded its resumption," the general wrote, "I had no idea why."

In retrospect, it appears that either Himmler or Kammler--it is not at all clear who--planned to use the A-9/A-10 as a booster to get the Haunebu-3, now referred to as the Ostara (ancient German goddess of the Dawn), into orbit rather than have the big saucer make the trip under its own power.

On 8 January 1945, the first version of the A-9...took off. The control failed about 30 meters (100 feet) above the firing table (launch pad), Dornberger wrote, "A few days later, we were unable to launch another missile because the alcohol tank had developed a leak. At last, on January 24 (1945), we had our first success. The rocket, climbing vertically, reached a peak height of nearly 80 kilometres (50 miles) at a maximum speed of 4,300 kilometres per hour (2,700 miles per hour)." (This may have been the rocket in the wartime photo that appeared on the back cover of Ballantine's book.)

All that needed to be done now was to strap two or three A-9/A-10 boosters together, with the Ostara as payload, and launch from Himmler's new SS base near Prague.

The same day the A-9/A-10 had its successful launch, 24 January 1945, Soviet troops of Marshal Ivan Konev's First Ukrainian Front (army group) entered Auschwitz. Russian soldiers saw for themselves the results of Kammler's earlier "big project."

"On 3 April 1945, I had orders from Kammler to evacuate my staff of four hundred and fifty old Peenemünde hands to the Lower Alps near Oberammergau. We moved on April 6, as the American tanks advanced through Bleicherode toward Bad Sachsa," Dornberger wrote, "I parted from Kammler and spent the last month of the war at Oberjoch near Hindelang with my staff and Professor von Braun, who had been injured in an automobile accident."

So, on 7 April 1945, Hans Kammler, the architect of Auschwitz-Birkenau, pulled a disappearing act worthy of Houdini. "There are five different versions of his death," Henry Stevens wrote, "And they all read like pulp fiction."

Did Kammler head for outer space aboard the Ostara? Or did he leave on an even larger spacecraft, the Andromeda? Only one person knows the answer to that question, and he committed suicide with a cyanide pill on 23 May 1945 -- Heinrich Himmler.

But if anybody had a really, really pressing need to leave Earth in April 1945 it was SS-Brigadeführer Hans Kammler.

See the books:

V2--Der Schuss ins Weltall by Walter Dornberger, Bechtle Vertag, Esslingen, Germany, 1952

Hitler's Undercover War by William Breuer, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 1989

V-1,V-2, Hitler's Vengeance on London by David Johnson, Stein & Day Publishers, Briarcliff Manor, N.Y.,1981

Flying Saucers Uncensored by Harold T. Wilkins, The Citadel Press, New York, N.Y., 1955

Himmler by Peter Padfield, MJF Books, New York, N.Y., 1990

Armageddon: The Battle for Germany 1944-1945 by Max Hastings, Alfred A. Knopf, 2004

Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, New York University Press, New York, N.Y.

Hitler's Flying Saucers by Henry Stevens, Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, 2003

 

The Third Reich: How Close Was Hitler to the A-Bomb?
Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch claims that the Nazis conducted three nuclear weapons tests in 1944 and 1945. But he has no proof to back up his theories
By Klaus Wiegrefe
Aus dem "Spiegel" Ausgabe 11/2005

How close was Hitler to an atomic bomb? A German historian claims he was much closer than previously believed

The United States needed 125,000 people, including six future Nobel Prize winners, to develop the atomic bombs that exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The uranium enrichment facility alone, including its security zone, was the size of the western German city of Frankfurt. Dubbed the Manhattan project, the quest ultimately cost the equivalent of about $30 billion.

In his new book, "Hitler's Bomb," Berlin historian Rainer Karlsch claims Nazi Germany almost achieved similar results with only a handful of physicists and a fraction of the budget. The author writes that German physicists and members of the military conducted three nuclear weapons tests shortly before the end of World War II, one on the German island of Rügen in the fall of 1944 and two in the eastern German state of Thuringia in March 1945. The tests, writes Karlsch, claimed up to 700 lives.

If these theories were accurate, history would have to be rewritten. Ever since the Allies occupied the Third Reich's laboratories and interrogated Germany's top physicists working with Wunderkind physicist Werner Heisenberg and his colleague Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, it's been considered certain that Hitler's scientists were a long way from completing a nuclear weapon.

Karlsch's publisher, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, is already issuing brazen claims about the "sensational results of the latest historic research." The Third Reich, says the publishing house, was "on the verge of winning the race to acquire the first functioning nuclear weapon." Even before the book was published, the generally reserved publishing house sent press kits to the media, in which it claimed that the author had solved "one of the great mysteries of the Third Reich."

The book is being presented Monday at an elaborately staged press conference. Karlsch, an unaffiliated academic, plans an extensive author's tour.

The only problem with all the hype is that the historian has no real proof to back up his spectacular theories.

His witnesses either lack credibility or have no first-hand knowledge of the events described in the book. What Karlsch insists are key documents can, in truth, be interpreted in various ways, some of which contradict his theory. Finally, the soil sample readings taken thus far at the detonation sites provide "no indication of the explosion of an atomic bomb," says Gerald Kirchner of Germany's Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

Karlsch spent several years in archives researching his subject, discovering many unknown documents on the history of science in the Third Reich. That includes a manuscript of one of Heisenberg's speeches which historians had previoulsy assumed had been lost. The manuscript alone would have been a significant find, but it wasn't enough to satisfy Karlsch or fully support his offbeat theory. As a result, in order to give his theory wings, he had to make some speculative leaps.

The bazooka effect

For one thing, he focuses on Erich Schumann, who served as chief of research for Germany's weapons division until 1944. At Schumann's estate, Karlsch discovered records from the post-war period. Schumann was a former physics professor and wrote that in 1944 he discovered a method of generating the high temperatures (several million degrees Celsius) and extreme pressure necessary to trigger nuclear fusion using conventional explosives. The hydrogen bomb is based on this principle.

During World War II, explosives experts experimented with hollow charges -- essentially hollowed-out explosive devices -- which possess extremely high penetration force. The success of the bazooka is based on this effect and Schumann believed he could apply it to a nuclear weapon. He assumed that enough energy for nuclear fusion would be released if two hollow charges were aimed at each other.

It's a theory that deserves serious consideration. However, Schumann never claimed to have tested his theory in practice. Karlsch, however, believes it was applied. He claims Schumann presented his ideas at a conference in the fall of 1944. He then speculates that, under instruction from the SS, a team of physicists working with Kurt Diebner, a rival of Heisenberg, made use of the discovery.

Karlsch bases his theory in part on statements made by Gerhard Rundnagel, a plumber, to the East German state security service, the Stasi. In the 1960s, the Stasi became aware of rumors circulating in the former East German state of Thuringia that there had been a nuclear detonation in 1945. Rundnagel told the security service that he had been in contact with the research team working with Diebner. He said one of the physicists in the group had told him that there were "two atomic bombs in a safe." Rundnagel later said the two bombs were dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Despite that inconsistency, Karlsch believes the man should be taken seriously.

An argument full of holes

The biggest hole in Karlsch's argument stems from his inablility to prove how the Diebner group managed to implement Schumann's ideas. According to Karlsch, Diebner and his colleagues used a special device that combined nuclear fission and fusion to initiate a chain reaction. With the help of physicists, Karlsch came up with a design for such a weapon and presents it in his book. Joachim Schulze, a nuclear weapons expert at Germany's Fraunhofer Institute, took a look at Karlsch's model and said it would be "incapable of functioning."

Another theory Karlsch presents in his book -- that the Germany navy tested a nuclear weapon on the Baltic Sea island of Rügen -- is nothing short of fantastic. His key witness is Luigi Romersa, a former war reporter for a Milan newspaper, "Corriere della Sera". For years Romersa, a Roman who is now 87, has been telling the story of how he visited Hitler in October 1944 and then was flown to an island in the Baltic Sea. Romersa says that he was taken to a dugout where he witnessed an explosion that produced a bright light, and that men wearing protective suits then drove him away from the site, telling him that what he had witnessed was a "fission bomb."

Unfortunately, Romersa doesn't recall the name of the island he claims to have visited or who was in charge of the bizarre event. Karlsch believes it was Rügen. He dismisses the fact that soil analysis shows no evidence of a nuclear explosion by pointing to erosion.

A more credible witness is the recently deceased Thuringian resident Cläre Werner. On 4 March 1945, Werner, who was standing on a nearby hillside, witnessed an explosion in a military training area near the town of Ohrdruf.

"It was about 9:30 when I suddenly saw something ... it was as bright as hundreds of bolts of lightning, red on the inside and yellow on the outside, so bright you could've read the newspaper. It all happened so quickly, and then we couldn't see anything at all. We just noticed there was a powerful wind..." The woman complained of "nose bleeds, headaches and pressure in the ears."

The next day Heinz Wachsmut, a man who worked for a local excavating company, was ordered to help the SS build wooden platforms on which the corpses of prisoners were cremated. The bodies, according to Wachsmut, were covered with horrific burn wounds. Like Werner, Wachsmut reports that local residents complained of headaches, some even spitting up blood.

In Wachsmut's account, higher-ranking SS officers told people that something new had been tested, something the entire world would soon be talking about. Of course, there was no mention of nuclear weapons.

Did Stalin hear reports about the weapon?

And what about the 700 victims, supposedly concentration camp inmates, Karlsch claims died in the tests? This impressive figure is nothing but an estimate based on the number of cremation sites Wachsmut recalls. However, on the reputed detonation date, the Ohrdruf concentration camp, part of the larger Buchenwald complex, recorded only 35 dead.

Another piece of evidence Karlsch cites is a March 1945 Soviet military espionage report. According to the report, which cites a "reliable source," the Germans "detonated two large explosions in Thuringia." The bombs, the Soviet spies wrote, presumably contained Uranium 235, a material used in nuclear weapons, and produced a "highly radioactive effect." Prisoners of war housed at the center of the detonation were killed, "and in many cases their bodies were completely destroyed."

The Red Army's spies noted with concern that the Germany army could "slow down our offensive" with its new weapon. The fact that dictator Josef Stalin received one of the four copies of the report shows just how seriously the Kremlin took the news.

Unfortunately, the document Karlsch presents is of such poor quality that it cannot be clearly determined whether the report describing the explosions was written before or after the detonation Cläre Werner claims to have witnessed.

More importantly, however, what Cläre Werner claims to have seen could not have a detonation of the type of bomb the German informer sketched for the Red Army. That type of device would have required several kilograms of highly enriched uranium, which all experts, including Karlsch, believe Nazi Germany did not possess.

There is one expert who the author, and his boastful publisher, hopes will support his theories. Uwe Keyser, a nuclear physicist who works for Germany's 'Federal Institute of Physics and Technology' in Braunschweig, is currently testing soil samples from Ohrdruf. Keyser believes that the readings for radioactive substances he has obtained so far are sufficiently abnormal so as not to rule out the explosion of a simple nuclear device. Of course, Keyser's readings could also be caused by naturally occurring processes, material left behind by Soviet forces stationed in Ohrdruf until 1994 or fallout from the Chernobyl disaster or nuclear weapons tests conducted by the superpowers.

Keyser says he needs "about a year" to conduct a more precise analysis. He also needs someone to continue footing the bill.


Translated from the German by Christopher Sultan

Would the atomic bomb have been used against Germany?
by Alex Wellerstein
4 October 2013

If the atomic bomb had been ready earlier in World War II, would it have been used against Nazi Germany? This is one of the great atomic “what if’s” — a hypothetical, counter-factual historical question that obviously can’t be answered because that’s not how history worked out, we can’t reshuffle the past around, and so on. Anything overtures in such a direction are just speculation. But it can be informed speculation — and, more importantly, it can highlight little-known aspects of history.

The question is an interesting one for numerous reasons. At its heart, it gets at the question of how contingent all of this was. The primary factor that determined when the first atomic bombs were ready for use was when the serious program of their production started. If the Americans had been convinced in 1940, rather than 1941, that an atomic bomb was worth seriously pursuing, then the Gadget might have been ready by July 1944, not July 1945. Could they have been convinced that early on? There is no reason why not — the British scientists had drawn that conclusion by then.

Up until early 1944, the bomb was still talked about as if it were going to be a deterrent against Germany. By August 1943, for example, Vannevar Bush was still reporting to Roosevelt that the Germans might be ahead, or at least neck-and-neck in the “race” for the bomb: “This may result in a situation where it will be necessary for us to stand the first punishing blows before we are in a position to destroy the enemy.” By early 1944, Groves had decided that the Germans having a bomb was “unlikely,” but that it still needed to be held out as a possibility. By late 1944, it was clear, from the Alsos mission, that Germany was nowhere near an atomic bomb — and indeed, they soon learned that the German program was in 1945 not even as far as where the Americans had gotten by the end of 1942. 

Over the course of late 1943 through 1944, the bomb shifted from being a deterrent to a first-strike weapon — a weapon that was meant to be used, not held in reserve. So who would it strike?

The very earliest discussion of targets of any sort was held in May 1943. As the last item of a much longer meeting, talking about all sorts of other matters (like spreading around fake stories about what was going on at Los Alamos, E.U. Condon’s resignation from the project, and construction of the various enrichment and production plants), a group composed of Groves, Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Admiral William Purnell, and Major General Wilhelm Styer had this discussion:

"The point of use of the first bomb was discussed and the general view appeared to be that its best point of use would be on a Japanese fleet concentration in the Harbor of Truk. General Styer suggested Tokio but it was pointed out that the bomb should be used where, if it failed to go off, it would land in water of sufficient depth to prevent easy salvage. The Japanese were selected as they would not be so apt to secure knowledge from it as would the Germans". 1

This has sometimes been cited as evidence that Japan was “always” the target. However, it seems too loose of a discussion to draw big, concrete conclusions from. It was still over two years before the first atomic bomb would be ready, and, again, it is tacked on to a much longer meeting that is concerned with much more basic, much more practical things, like whether J. Robert Oppenheimer will get an administrative assistant assigned to him. But, still, it’s a data point. Note that the context, here, of choosing Japan over Germany is reflective of how uncertain they are about the bomb itself: they are worried that the first one will be a complete dud, and so their choice here is that if a dud were to land in Germany, it would be more dangerous thing than if it were to land in Japan.

Note that “the Harbor of Truk” (Chuuk Lagoon) is not a target on the Japanese home islands — it is in Micronesia, far south of the Japanese mainland, north of New Guinea. During World War II it was the Japanese equivalent of Pearl Harbor. It was a purely military, tactical target, not a strategic one. And by the time an atomic bomb was ready, it had been made irrelevant by Allied attacks and isolation (though it was still under Japanese occupation).

The first concrete discussion of targets came in the spring of 1945. These are the famous “Target Committee” meetings at Los Alamos which discussed what kind of target criteria they were using, what cities might fit it, and so on. Grim business, but entirely focused on Japan, in part because by that point it was clear that Germany’s defeat was imminent.

Is there any evidence that anyone in power would have considered atomic bombing Germany, though, had they the ability? The only insight comes from a postwar interview that General Groves gave, sometime in the early 1960s:2

REPORTER: General Groves, could we go back for a minute. You mentioned in your book ["Now it Can Be Told"] that just before the Yalta Conference that President Roosevelt said if we had bombs before the European war was over he would like to drop them on Germany. 3 Would you discuss this?

GROVES: "At the conference that Secretary Stimson and myself had with President Roosevelt shortly before his departure, I believe it was December 30th or 31st of 1944, President Roosevelt was quite disturbed over the Battle of the Bulge and he asked me at that time whether I could bomb Germany as well as Japan. The plan had always been to bomb Japan because we thought the war in Germany was pretty apt to be over in the first place and in the second place the Japanese building construction was much more easily damaged by a bomb of this character than that in Germany. I urged President Roosevelt that it would be very difficult for various reasons".

"The main one was that the Germans had quite strong aerial defense. They made a practice, as every nation does, that when a new plane came into the combat area, that they would run any risk that they could to bring such a plane down so that they could examine it and see what new ideas had come in so that they could make improvements and also would know the characteristics of the plane so that they could prepare a better defense against it. We had no B-29’s in Europe. If we had sent over a small squadron or group as we did against Japan of this type, everyone of them would have been brought down on the first trip to Germany. If they hadn’t been, it would have been through no lack of effort on the part of the Germans.

"The alternative would be to bring a large number of B-29’s over to to England and that would have been a major logistical task and the other possibility would have been to have used a British plane which would not have been a bit pleasing to General Arnold and also would have created a great many difficulties for our general operation because then it would be an Allied operation with the United States furnishing the bombs and everything connected with it but using a British plane and a British crew to actually drop the bomb and it would have raised a tremendous number of difficulties.

"And difficulties like that — while you say you should be able to handle that — you can but in a project of this character there are so many little things, each one of them key, that you can’t afford to throw any more sand into the wheels that you can help.

"The bombing of Germany with atomic bombs was, I would say, never seriously considered to the extent of making definite plans but on this occasion I told the President, Mr. Roosevelt, why it would be very unfortunate from my standpoint, I added that of course if the President — if the war demanded it and the President so desired, we would bomb Germany and I was so certain personally that the war in Europe would be over before we would be ready that you might say I didn’t give it too much consideration".

Now this is an interesting detail — that FDR himself was interested in whether they could drop an atomic bomb on Germany? One has to always question postwar recollections, especially the General’s, but this has the ring of authenticity to it. Groves would not fabricate memories of conversations with Roosevelt. At this meeting, Groves had thought that the first uranium bomb (Little Boy) would be ready by late July, and that the first plutonium bomb would be ready by early August — far too late for use in the European war. But it is worth contemplating Roosevelt’s intentions. Did he really want to drop this bomb, or was he trying to figure out what exactly the USA’s chips were before entering into discussions with the Soviets? Would Roosevelt have made the same concessions to the Soviets that he ended up making, had he thought the US had an atomic bomb at the ready? Would he have insisted that the Soviets enter the Pacific war? More hypotheticals, but it does add an interesting wrinkle to the discussion.

Groves’ argument against using a bomb in the European theatre is also interesting. Essentially he is saying that the choice not to deploy B-29s in Europe, and the choice of the B-29 as the weapon for the atomic bomb (a decision made in late 1943), had profound practical consequences. It is easy to forget that the first atomic bombs could not be dropped out of just any old plane. They were huge by the standards of World War II: the Fat Man bomb was a single, 10-foot-long, 5-foot-wide weapon that weighed over 5 tons. Neither the B-17 nor the B-24 could carry such a load in weight alone, much less in one fat bomb. The Little Boy bomb was just as long, weighed a little less, and did not have as large a diameter. It was also a bit over the maximum load ever carried by those other planes. The British Avro Lancaster bomber could have carried Little Boy, though — the Tall Boy and Grand Slam bombs were larger than Little Boy, though with much smaller diameters than Fat Man. its likely though that the Lancaster’s bay was too narrow for Fat Man. 4

B-29 Superfortress 'Enola Gay' dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima

Does one buy Groves’ reasons? His justification has the feel of a post facto justification to it — it’s just a little too thought out for a quick reply to Roosevelt. It was the fact that he didn’t expect the bombs to be ready anytime soon, and didn’t want the obligation of trying to get one ready for use against Germany, that really was the reason for him not wanting FDR to think that the bomb might be ready for that piece of the war. Having one ready to drop on Japan by August 1945 proved to be a tough job as it was.

Loading Fat Man

Was racism a factor? This sometimes gets asked as well. One of the tricky things about racism is that it only rarely factors into reasoning explicitly. There is nothing in the discussions of the people in charge of target selection that makes one think that racism played any kind of overt role in the decisions they made — at least, in the sense that they would have dropped the bomb on the Japanese but would not have dropped it on the Germans. It doesn’t mean it didn’t, of course — just that there is not any real evidence of it. This is an entirely separate issue from whether racist dehumanization was encouraged for the populace and the troops (it obviously was). But, again, there is no evidence to support the idea that the Americans would not have used atomic weapons against the Germans because they were whites, but would have used them against the Japanese because they were not. The Allies clearly were willing to massacre German civilians, as they did drop firebombs on several German cities, though that obviously does not tell the whole story.

So what’s the take-away answer? The long and short of it is, of course, that they didn’t have the bombs ready to use in the European theatre, knew they wouldn’t from fairly early on, and so never took the time to try and clarify the logistical issues that would have made it practicable. But Roosevelt’s question to Groves does leave open the possibility that they might have done it, if all of those things had turned out differently.

Notes

1. Minutes of the Military Policy Meeting (5 May 1943), Correspondence (“Top Secret”) of the Manhattan Engineer District, 1942-1946, microfilm publication M1109 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1980), Roll 3, Target 6, Folder 23, “Military Policy Committee, Minutes of Meetings.”
2. Leslie R. Groves interview with Fred Freed (no date, ca. 1963), National Archives and Records Administration, RG 200, Box 4, “Groves, Leslie.”
3.“It was at the same conference that Mr. Roosevelt informed me if the European war was not over before we had our first bombs he wanted us to be ready to drop them on Germany.” Groves does not elaborate on this in the book at all. Leslie Groves, "Now it Can Be Told" (New York: Harper, 1962), 184.
4.And the Gadget was pretty snug inside the Fat Man ballistic casing — the diameter could not be reduced.

Did Germany have the Atomic Bomb?

The Nuclear Project in Germany

Thee Nazi Germany Nuclear Energy project began in April 1939, just after the discovery of Nuclear Fission in January 1939. The first effort ended after several months, but the second effort was controlled by the German Army Ordnance office on the day after WWII began. The program expanded into three departments: the nuclear reactor, uranium and heavy water production, and uranium isotope separation. In January 1942, the program was split up between nine major institutes. At that time the number of scientists working on nuclear fission began to diminish. The National Socialist regime was actually driving away many physicists and mathematicians out of Germany by 1933. The demand for immediate armed manpower nearly eliminated a generation of physicists.

Germany Discovery of Nuclear Fission

In December 1938, two Germans, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, reported they had detected the element Barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons. This effort was confirmed as being nuclear fission. In April 1939, the Reich Ministry of War was informed of the potential military application of nuclear energy. By June 1939, they had produced a substantial amount of "waste uranium" from which it had extracted radium. From this they produced uranium oxide.

First Mistakes Begin

It seems clear that Germany had the scientists, the knowledge, and the forward progress to produce a working weapon. Adolph Hitler was a man obsessed with immediate results of military production, which led to a slackening of the importance of continued nuclear effort. Germany was off to a fast, efficient, and productive effort to eventually perfect an atomic bomb. They had 80 scientists working on the project, and much progress was being made. However it seems that many contradictory rules  were repeatedly being put into place, which slowly diminished the progress of the project. At that time everything was there just waiting for completion orders.

Ineffective Leadership led to Loss of Scientists

Hitler's numerous decrees for the reorganization of the nuclear project, and the appointment of many military individuals who were incompetent and ineffective, again hindered progress.

Hitler took power on 30 January 1933. In April, he passed a new law which politicized the education system in Germany. This law had an immediate effect on the physics capability in Germany. An immediate consequence upon passage of this law produced great losses to the physics community. Numerically 1145 university teachers in all fields were driven from their posts, many moving to Britain and to the U.S. to eventually find work on the Manhattan Project. This helped the U.S. develop the Atomic Bomb. They were responsible for calculating the critical mass of U-235 which was needed for an explosion.

Hitler was warned that the continuation of National Socialist policies was forcing Jewish scientists to emigrate, and would greatly hurt Germany as the benefits of their work would go to foreign countries. Hitler was not one to be warned, or criticized, and paid no attention to the destruction of his nation's scientific decline, which now was at an alarming rate. Continued political battles were seriously causing most scientists to leave, particularly the Jews, who were subject to physical violence and incarceration. Hitler's Germany was slowly deteriorating.

Plans to Divide Germany

Near the end of WWII the principal Allied war powers made plans for exploitation of German Science. In light of the implications of nuclear weapons, German nuclear fission and related technologies were singled out for special attention. In addition, denial was an element of their efforts. The Americans and Russians conducted their respective operations to deny Germany with material and anything else related to the production. It became extremely important for either country to arrive first and seize all the technical knowledge , provisions, and personnel. This put the Russians at a disadvantage in some geographic locations.

Berlin had been a location of many German scientific research facilities. Many of these were dispersed to other locations in the latter years of  the war. The U.S. took into custody a large number of German scientists associated with nuclear research.

The Final Day of Reckoning

The  German Army Ordnance Office progressed to the point of production of high-purity uranium oxide, as were necessary in metals production. Further testing produced 25 tons of uranium oxide cubes. The U.S. determined that one of the plants producing uranium and thorium metals was in the future Soviet zone of occupation and that Russian troops would get there before the Allies. General Leslie Groves, commander of the Manhattan Project, recommended to General George Marshall that the plant be destroyed by aerial bombing before the Russians could get there. On 15 March 1945, 612 American B-17 bombers dropped 1,506 tons of high explosive bombs, and 178 tons of incendiary bombs on the plant. The Russians knew the reason behind the bombing was really directed at them rather than the Germans.

At the close of WWII the Soviet Union had special search teams to identify equipment, property, and personnel useful to their Atomic Bomb project. Many German physicists who worked on the project in Germany were sent to the Soviet Union to work on their Atomic Bomb project.

The joint American, British, and Canadian Manhattan Project developed the Uranium and Plutonium Atomic Bombs which helped bring an end to hostilities with Japan.

What happened to the German Effort?

The mutual distrust between the German Government and the scientists existed due to the Socialist Laws. Germany needed materials and manpower for a large-scale project necessary for the separation of isotopes for a uranium-based bomb, and heavy water production of reactors for a plutonium-based bomb. This may have been possible in the early years of the war, but in the latter years it would have been impossible to mount such an effort. Allied bombing missions increased as the war continued. Germany fell short of producing the bomb as they had everything needed to produce it, plus the necessary scientists. Then why did Germany not succeed with their project? Hitler made numerous mistakes, one of which was causing the loss of most of their scientists, another was the untimely and unnecessary and ill conceived attack on Russia. This is a frightening story of what might have been had it not been for the incompetent performance of the German leaders.

The real reason that the German effort to build an atomic bomb was not successful, was that early in 1942, German Army Ordnance completed a report which ranked weapons programs by how promising they were. Based on the information available at the time, it seemed unlikely that a nuclear bomb could be developed in less than two years. The German belief that the war would be over in two years steered the Army to only invest in weapons programs that could be completed within that period.

This time estimate appears to be scientifically accurate and consistent with predictions made by Allied scientists. The Allies, however, concerned that the war would go much longer than two years, and that the Germans might be able to produce their own nuclear weapon, invested heavily in building such a device. Ironically, unknown to the Allies, the German program had been put on the back burner and was not a real threat.

Even if the Third Reich had decided to build an atomic bomb, it might have been beyond German means. The Allies' Manhattan Project, which created their nuclear weapons, was just as much of an industrial effort as a scientific breakthrough. The project cost the equivalent of $30 billion in today's dollars and employed 125,000 people. Vast amounts of complex machinery and sprawling factories were needed to turn out the rare uranium 235 and plutonium necessary to fuel the bombs. Germany just didn't have the industrial capacity to support such an undertaking during the last years of the war.

Even if they had attempted it they would have found their factories exposed to constant Allied bombing attacks. The Allies, on the other hand, could place their project facilities deep in the heart of North America (in places like New Mexico and Tennessee) far from observation and interference by the Axis powers. So it appears there was really little chance of the Nazis actually developing an atom bomb during the war. They didn't even come close… or did they?

Mainstream American historians have expressed skepticism towards any claims that Nazi Germany was in any way close to success at producing a true nuclear weapon, citing the copious amounts of evidence which seem to indicate the contrary. Others counter that Prof. Kurt Diebner had a project which was far more advanced than that of Dr. Werner Heisenberg. A recent article in "Physics Today" by the respected American historian Mark Walker has presented some of Karlsch's less controversial claims — that the Germans had done research on fusion, that they were aware that a bomb could potentially be made with plutonium, that they had engaged in some sort of test of some sort of device, that a patent on a plutonium device (of unspecified detail) had been filed and found — as substantiated.

The Germans’ only source of heavy water, a necessary component of some of their bomb research, was Norsk Hydros plant in Vemork, Norway. In February 1943, a Norwegian commando unit sabotaged the plant. Whether this affected the German program is not clear.

It is noteworthy, though, that Germany had already had a significant amount of heavy water and could have built a small reactor with it. The problem of the supply of uranium was solved in 1940 when over 1,000 tons of mixed uranium products were captured at Oolen in Belgium. Germany had everything ready, but just seemed unable to do anything with it.

Still a Mystery: Nazi Germany's Atomic Bomb Failure
By Philip M. Boffey
N Y Times
10 February 10, 2002

A small trove of documents released last week throws cold water on the notion that high-minded German scientists tried to slow work on an atomic bomb for the Nazi regime during World War II. But the documents provide no definitive answer to the question of why German physicists, who were among the best in the world, made so little progress on an atomic weapon compared with their counterparts in the United States.

The idea that German scientists worried about the morality of atomic war and tried to head off the development of a bomb was given wide currency in "Copenhagen". Michael Frayn's award-winning play, which focuses on a pivotal meeting in September 1941 between Werner Heisenberg, the scientific head of the German nuclear project, and Niels Bohr, his Danish mentor. Both were Nobel laureates and towering figures in 20th-century physics.

The play is built around the differing recollections of the two men and the ultimate uncertainty of exactly what happened. In it, the Heisenberg character explains that he visited Bohr to warn him, in highly guarded language, that atomic bombs could be built and to feel him out on whether physicists on both sides could agree to stop the work. The Frayn play was greatly influenced by a book that argued that Heisenberg and his colleagues actually sabotaged the German bomb program from within, a view that is accepted by few historians who have looked into the question.

The puzzle as to why the German atomic bomb program stalled has several overlapping explanations. Some of the best German physicists were Jewish and had been driven into exile, where many worked on the American or British atomic bomb programs. Nazi ideology had only scorn for "Jewish physics" and thus undervalued what theoretical physicists could contribute to the war effort. And as saturation bombing ravaged German cities, the Nazi industrial machine increasingly lacked the ability to mount a vast bomb development project to compete with the American Manhattan Project.

Still, it is clear that German physicists, for whatever reason, did fail to push hard enough to reach the goal. Some attribute that to surprising technical errors, like a grotesque overestimate of the amount of fissile material that was needed and a failure to realize that readily available graphite, if highly purified, could be used to moderate the atomic reaction instead of scarce, hard-to-get heavy water. Others blame arrogance and complacency on the part of German physicists who felt that if the job was hard for them, it would be impossible for the Allies. And some believe that there was a genuine reluctance to work on such an awesome weapon, either for moral reasons or for fear of failing and being blamed for a national defeat.

Recordings made surreptitiously of Heisenberg and other German scientists held in captivity after the German surrender show that they were stunned by news that the United States had exploded an atomic bomb over Hiroshima and refused to believe that it had actually been done. Even in these early recordings, one can discern the beginnings of a search for the moral high ground, as one German physicist contrasts the American development of "this ghastly weapon of war" with more peaceful nuclear reactor research under Hitler.

Heisenberg's own version of his meeting with Bohr was set out years after the war in a letter that was excerpted  in a German edition of a book on the atomic bomb projects,  journalist Robert Jungk's "Brighter than a Thousand Suns" (1956). He recalled starting his conversation with Bohr by raising a question about whether it was "right" for physicists to work on uranium during the war, given that it could lead to "grave consequences." He also said he had told Bohr that developing atomic weapons would require such a terrific technical effort that one could hope they would not be ready in time. He felt the situation gave physicists leverage to dissuade government officials from even trying to build the bomb.

That letter so angered Bohr that he drafted a number of responses between 1957 and 1962 that were never sent but were released last week by the Bohr family. As Bohr recalled it, Heisenberg left "the firm impression that, under your leadership, everything was being done in Germany to develop atomic weapons." Bohr said that Heisenberg "gave no hint about efforts on the part of German scientists to prevent such a development."

Even with these latest documents, we are still left with conflicting versions from the two participants. Most historians seem inclined to accept Bohr's version as more probable and Heisenberg's as revisionist history, a view that gains credence by looking at Heisenberg in a broader context than just that single meeting.


David Cassidy, a historian at Hofstra University who wrote a biography of Heisenberg, says there is no evidence from any other sources that moral issues were of particular concern to Heisenberg. Indeed, he says, Heisenberg seemed most concerned about using the war to prove the worth of physics to the nation and its rulers. With those motivations in mind, it seems likely that Heisenberg would have made a bomb if he could.




As a teenager I became fascinated with the history of World War Two, and particularly the European theater and the race for the atomic bomb. Physics was also an interest for me, and another oddity lodged in my mind as I read the standard histories: the United States had never tested the uranium bomb it dropped on Hiroshima. I thought that was an extremely odd oddity indeed. It seemed to have the same sharp angles and corners as the Warren Commission's "magic bullet". It just didn't fit. Other odd facts accumulated over the years as if to underline the strangeness of the war's end in general and that fact in particular.

Then, in 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and the two post-war Germanies raced toward reunification. The events seemed to unfold faster than the news media's ability to keep pace.

Gradually, and one must say, predictably, the Germans themselves raced to uncover what lay hidden in the formerly inaccessible archival vaults of East Germany and the Soviet Union. Witnesses came forward, and German authors endeavored to come to grips with yet another aspect of the darkest period in their nation's history. Much, if not all, of their work remains ignored in the USA., both by mainstream and by alternative researchers.

This present book is based in part on these Germans' efforts. It, like them, raises dangerous questions, and often presents dangerous and disturbing answers. As a consequence, while the Nazi regime's "image" becomes even more blackened, the image of the victorious Allies also suffers to a great degree. This book presents not only a radically different history of the race for the bomb, but also outlines a case that Germany was making enormous strides toward acquisition of a whole host of second and third and even fourth generation weapons technologies even more horrific in their destructive power.

That in itself would not be too unusual. After all, there have been a wealth of books on World War Two German secret weapons projects and their astonishing results. Those seeking new technical data on these weapons will find some new material here, for the thrust of the book is not on the weapons per se. Rather, the present work seeks a context within Nazi ideology and in some aspects of contemporary theoretical physics for these projects.

Accordingly, this is not a work of history. But neither is it a work merely of fiction. It is best described as a case of possibilities, of speculative history. It is an attempt to make sense, by means of a radical hypothesis placed within a very broad context, of events during and after the war that make no sense.


Nazi weapons expert Hans Kammler was secretly interogated by US  
By David Charter
The Times  
12 June 2014  

The SS general in charge of Adolf Hitler’s secret weapons program, who was said to have killed himself at the end of the war, was in fact spirited away to the US, where he was interrogated for ­nuclear secrets for two years, it was claimed yesterday. 
 
Hans Kammler, who oversaw the construction of the Auschwitz crematoriums as well as the V-1 and V-2 rockets, was grilled by US secret service men until he committed suicide in detention, it has been alleged.

Kammler had detailed knowledge of the “wonder weapons” Hitler thought could win the war, including the Nazi nuclear program, which may have been based at the network of underground concentration camps at Mauthausen-Gusen in Austria. Some parts of the complex have never been explored properly because they were filled in after the war.

Relatives of an American agent who interrogated Kammler in the US spoke out for the first time about the man who would certainly have been put on trial at Nuremberg if he had been captured by regular forces in Europe.

“He described him as the worst of the worst,” said John Richardson, the son of Donald Richardson, a secret service agent who died in 1996. “I have known about this for approximately 40 years but it was so secret that I could not talk about it.

“My father told me that he interviewed Hans Kammler but that he never saw the light of day, he never walked the streets of America. He brought a special treasure from the Third Reich into the US. He was interrogated and every piece of information he had about those ‘wonder weapons’ was squeezed out of him.”

Mr Richardson spoke publicly about Kammler to a documentary team for German television. Andreas Sulzer, the filmmaker, said he had found documents proving that Kammler did not die by his own hand in Prague on 9 May 1945. His body was never found, sparking conspiracy theories.

“The whole story of suicide is staged,” said historian Rainer Karlsch. “There are several documents that clearly demonstrate that Kammler was captured in the war by the Americans.”

'Biggest secret Nazi weapons factory of the Third Reich' discovered underground near sleepy Austrian town
A NUCLEAR BOMB is among the weapons of mass destruction believed to have been developed in the facility
By Hayley Coyle
Daily Mirror
28 December 2014

A gigantic secret Nazi weapons factory where a Nuclear Bomb may have been developed has been discovered in Austria.

The 75-acre facility, located near the town of St Georgen an der Gusen, is believed to have been used to create and test weapons of mass destruction and was deemed so important to the Nazis that the head of the SS and Hitler's right hand man Heinrich Himmler, even oversaw its development.

The complex, which experts believe was the "biggest secret weapons production facility of the Third Reich", was discovered by Andreas Sulzer, an Austrian documentary maker who found reference to the bunkers in the diaries of an old Austrian physicist.

They were so well hidden though that bulldozing equipment was to needed to cut away massive granite plates the Nazis had used to hide the entrance shaft in 1945. Ground penetrating radar was also required to confirm reports of how large the facility was.

The facility is believed to be linked to the nearby B8 Bergkristall underground factory that produced the Messerschmitt Me 262, the world's first operational jet-powered fighter, that posed a brief threat to allied air forces in the war's closing stages.

Mr Sulzer told "The Times": "This was a gigantic industrial complex."

And similar to the Bergkristall factory, it relied on slave labour from the nearby Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. Up to 320,000 inmates are said to have died because of the brutal conditions in the subterranean labyrinth.

In order to fully discover the meaning behind the secret facility Mr Sulzer assembled a crack team of historians and found further evidence of scientists working on the secret project, which was managed by the feared SS General Hans Kammler.

Kammler, known to be a ruthless leader, was in charge of Hitler's missile programmes, including the V-2 rocket used against London in the latter stages of the war. He was also the man who signed off blueprints for the gas chambers that killed millions of Jews.

Rainer Karlsch, a historian who worked with Mr Sulzer, said: "The SS leadership aspired to create a combination of missiles and weapons of mass destruction.

"They wanted to equip the A4 [a variant of the V-2] missile, or more advanced rockets, with poison gas, radioactive material or nuclear warheads".

There were heated arguments within the German scientific community over the direction of nuclear research. Heisenberg's group preferred a reactor using uranium and heavy water as moderator. Its research, however, had been going on at a snail's pace. Heisenberg just seemed unable to grasp some fundamental principles of making an atomic bomb. This group seemed to believe that a whole reactor would have to be dropped as a nuclear bomb. Even the scientists involved admitted that no atomic bomb could be built before the end of the war.

Another group, led by Paul Harteck and backed by Dr. Wilhelm Ohnesorge, head of the Reich Post Office, opted for the low-temperature (-80C) reactor. A low-temperature reactor would produce neither heat nor power, but would leave radioactive material behind in the forms of spent fuel, radioactive isotopes and plutonium. These by-products, except plutonium, of course, did not amount to an atomic bomb, but there was another possibility. Fine sand and dust could be mixed with the radioactive material to make themselves radioactive (such a device is now known as "dirty bomb"). Packed around the high explosive warheads of the V-1 and V-2, the radioactive dust could spread far and wide, and knock out large cities like London. Harteck, however, met oppositions from Heisenberg, who disagreed with Harteck and withheld crucial materials. As a result, Harteck and others' work did not amount to much.

Later the Russian army plundered Bergkristall removed all the technology and then destroyed and filled in the Bunkers.

The second part of the site, which Sulzer has discovered, seems to have remained unnoticed by both the Americans and the Russians.

Sulzer's excavation was stopped last Wednesday by local authorities, who demanded a permit for research on historic sites. But he is confident that digging can resume next month.

"Prisoners from concentration camps across Europe were handpicked for their special skills — physicists, chemists or other experts — to work on this monstrous project and we owe it to the victims to finally open the site and reveal the truth," said Sulzer.

Lost Nazi underground weapons testing Bunker unearthed in Austria
Chemical and atomic weapons were tested at the secret site during World War II
By  Thomas Wyke 
International Business Times
28 December 2014

A secret underground weapons stronghold, built by the Nazis to test new advanced weaponry has been uncovered in Austria.

The surprise finding was discovered underground near the town of Sankt Georgen an der Gusen, Austria, near the Bergkristall factory where the Messerschmitt Me 262 – the first operational jet-powered fighter – was invented.

The discovery of the site came after Andreas Sulzer, an Austrian documentary maker noticed a reference to the Bunkers in the diary of Austrian physicist who was recruited by the Nazis.

Sulzer, alongside a team of historians, began to investigate the idea of the Bunkers, receiving funding from several German broadcasters to document his discoveries.

Sulzer, one of the excavations' coordinators, spoke proudly of the discovery: "This was a gigantic industrial complex and most likely the biggest secret weapons production facility of the Third Reich."

He acquired aerial photographs from RAF plane that showed outlines of the complex's concrete structure.

Prior to their downfall, the Nazis went to great lengths to conceal the weapons facility, covering the entrances with thick layers of earth and slabs of granite.

The vast underground network of tunnels were built by inmates at the nearby Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. It is believed that an estimated 320,000 inmates died building the labyrinth of concrete tunnels and shafts.

The "Encyclopaedia  Britannica" in its 1963 edition states that:

"At Mauthausen, one of the extermination camps in Austria, close to 2,000,000 people, mostly Jews, were exterminated between 1941 and 1945"

Now, the death toll has been revised:

"An estimated 197,464 prisoners passed through the Mauthausen camp system between August 1938 and May 1945. At least 95,000 died there. More than 14,000 were Jewish."

--United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

An exaggeration of 1,905,000!

This camp is no longer considered by official sources who support the holocaust legend as an “extermination camp,” nor is it still claimed that any camps on German soil were either.

It is believed to be the location of a secret weapons programme, led by SS General Hans Kammler. Kammler is thought to have lived on the site during the war. Rumours continue to surround his death, with some suggesting he was given a new identity by the US government in exchange for details on Nazi weapons research.

The deadly V-2 rocket which struck at London during the final months of the World War II was tested at the complex. It is also thought that scientists experimented with the use of radioactive material and chemical gas.

The new excavations have had a setback, after local authorities ordered them to be halted until Sulzer obtains a proper permit for the research of historical sites.


Will 40,000 'missing' Nazi victims and Hitler's secret nuclear bomb factory finally be uncovered?
A WW2 concentration camp’s 70yr mystery unfolds as experts claim thousands were killed in tunnels for knowing too much about Hitler's atomic weapons programme
By Emily Retter
Daily Mirror
16 January 2015   

The Austrian slaughterhouse of Mauthausen-Gusen was among the last Nazi concentration camps to be liberated. So when Allied troops arrived in May 1945 they were at least prepared for the skeletal figures and the deathly stench.

But this time there was something that just didn’t add up. SS documents showed 90,000 prisoners were registered as living in the camps just days previously – but only 40,000 souls were actually there.

A few thousand had been marched two hours to the River Danube and shot. Around 10,000 Jews had been evacuated. But that still left thousands missing.

For 70 years the mystery has remained. But now a terrible explanation may be about to emerge from the bowels of the earth below the sleepy town of St Georgen an der Gusen.

Experts think that below the chocolate-box perfection of its traditional houses are tunnels where the bodies of those missing victims will be found.

What’s more, they believe they were massacred to protect another sinister secret – that the Nazis had been developing atomic weapons in clandestine underground laboratories.

“There could be as many as 40,000 people down there, killed in what might be described as a giant gas chamber.

“We could be about to uncover a vast mass grave,” says Andreas Sulzer, the Austrian documentary-maker who is leading the project.

It is known that a 75-acre network of tunnels was dug by concentration camp inmates to house Nazi munitions and fighter-jet factories. Up to 320,000 are said to have died in brutal working conditions.

But Sulzer is convinced that there is an undiscovered 12-mile section which could have been used for atomic bomb research.

His team of historians and scientists have been digging in the area for more than three years and in December a concealed entrance was found.

For now, the dig has been temporarily suspended while a new permit is sought.

“Until we get down there we won’t know anything for sure but I believe we could find thousands of bodies, and evidence that nuclear weapons were being worked on.

"I think the Nazis were getting close – and they were planning to attack London and New York first,” says Sulzer.

“What we do know is that there are almost no witnesses. The reason may be because those witnesses are still there.”

Although Nazi nuclear research began before the outbreak of war in 1939, many historians believe Hitler was nowhere near his goal of creating a atom bomb like the ones America would later drop on Japan to end the war in the Pacific in 1946.

Sulzer’s team says there is evidence that a team of nuclear scientists was working at Gusen under the leadership of SS General Hans Kammler, the man in charge of Nazi missile programmes, including the V-2 rocket.

New Nazi atrocities revealed as Hitler tested rockets on GERMAN people and towns 
Highly classified SS papers reveal Nazis had levelled their own towns and cities testing V2 rockets 
By Martin Fricker
Daily Mirror
11 March 2015  

Twisted Adolf Hitler slaughtered thousands of his own citizens by using German cities as target practice to test V2 rockets.

Highly classified SS papers, which were only issued to a secretive unit called Kommandostelle S, have revealed the full horror of the bombings.

They show how Germans died at the hands of their own leader in 1944 and 1945 – who then blamed the carnage on Allied Forces. The rockets were launched during the closing months of the Second World War as Hitler’s last role of the dice.

SS commanders ordered all documents relating to the V2 – the V standing for Vergeltungswaffe, or Vengeance Weapon – to be destroyed.

But the charred remains of some of the reports were rescued and document how desperate Nazis had levelled their own towns and cities while developing the deadly weapons.

A large number of rockets were fired from the Peenemünde region, where experimental devices were tested, and most landed in Pomerania. Special units were then sent to evaluate the extent of the damage and report back to the Führer. The chilling documents go under the hammer at London’s 'Chiswick Auctions' next week and could fetch £2,500.

Auctioneer Richard Westwood-Brookes said: “Many of these test firings were fired at German targets – cities and towns. They resulted in considerable casualties and substantial damage to properties.”

The V2 rockets, which were 46ft tall and launched from mobile units, were fired at London and England’s south east, killing over 7,000 people.

It was the most advanced weapon used in the war until the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

“The SS leadership aspired to create a combination of missiles and weapons of mass destruction,” says historian Rainer Karlsch. “They wanted to equip the A4 missile, or more advanced rockets, with poison gas, radioactive material or nuclear warheads.”

The team was first alerted to the possible secret tunnels by the diaries of a German physicist Viktor Schauberger.

“He was involved, under strict secrecy, in research projects for the SS in St Georgen,” says Sulzer. “In his letters he talks about splitting the atom. He speaks of atom-smashing".

Aerial and forensic teams have found evidence of underground structures in the area under investigation.

“You could see ventilation shafts on the hill close by, unnatural structures in the hills. Based on that we started our digging,” explains Sulzer.

When the secret entrance was found, it was evident that the Nazis had gone to extreme lengths to seal it shut with large granite plates when they abandoned the site in 1945.

An SS helmet was found during the digging too. One SS officer interrogated by the Americans spoke of a chemical workshop operating at a deep level.

And the Nazis had moved atomic research experts to Gusen from other concentration camps, including Auschwitz.

“They selected chemists, radio ­technicians, physicists and skilled labourers,” says Sulzer.

“We have ­interviewed Auschwitz survivors who came to Gusen and they told us on the train they talked to other inmates and realised they were highly skilled experts.

“Prison inmate cards and ‘death books’ show us that Gusen had a high proportion of chemists, electro-technicians, physicists, metal workers.

"There was an unbelievable death rate for the metal workers – they were surviving a maximum of four weeks.”

Sulzer believes the likely cause was exposure to chemicals being extracted in the tunnels.

Research also shows increased levels of radiation around the site.

“There are very clear signs that there is probably something strange going on down there,” says Sulzer.

Fears that the digging will uncover a mass grave comes from ­documents and interviews including evidence from Gusen’s SS commander Franz Ziereis. who was shot trying to escape then ­interrogated on his death bed.

“He revealed he had an order to kill inmates, specifically the people who worked in this complex and had knowledge of the secret project.

"He was told to bring them to the tunnels and blow them up with a chemical substance,” says Sulzer. “But he claimed that he did not execute the order.”

The mismatched figures suggest differently – 90,000 inmates registered, only 40,000 alive when the camp was liberated.

Even allowing for known shootings and the daily toll of the gas chambers, Martha Gammer, who leads a Gusen commemoration group, believes there could be 25,000 bodies lying where they fell underground.

“I think they may have been killed because they knew too much. And how else can you kill thousands in just a few days? They had just four or five days to kill them before the SS fled,” she says.

An Austrian report from the 1960s also seems to show that explosions had taken place in the tunnel complex.

Why they did not go on to explore further Sulzer does not know – but the job of technicians at the time was simply to evaluate the area for possible use as a nuclear waste plant.

“Perhaps they knew it was already contaminated land,” he suggests.

More chilling details of how the mass killings might have been happened have emerged from interviews with camp survivors.

Sulzer says: “I spoke to one Polish survivor last year and he said the commander started training a particular section of inmates to run to the tunnels in fake aerial raid practices.

“They practised this four or five times, but the prisoners in sections that produced the planes and the rockets did not do this. Just the physicists, the chemists, the people working on the secret project.”

He says it’s possible that in the last such drill, tens of thousands ran to their deaths.

Until excavation work re-opens Sulzer and has team can only guess how close Hitler came to making atomic weapons and the fate of those forced to work on them.

But he is determined to discover the truth.

“We owe it to the victims,” he says


Hans Kammler and Nuclear Weapons

Nazi Nuclear Programme

It remains a phantom that has been dismissed by scholars for decades as producing nothing. That common view, however, may be changing.

The story line for the past 70 years has been that the Germans during World War II made only a few preliminary gestures toward the basic science underpinning nuclear power. They did not get very far after Albert Einstein in March 1933 and other top researchers became émigrés working for the United States government. In addition, targeted Allied interventions such as at Vemork Norsk Hydro plant in the town of Rjukan in the county of Telemark, Norway, where a barge full of heavy water supposedly was sunk and ended the Nazis' nuclear program, were said to have played a key role in stopping the research.

Because of Kammler's association with top-secret, cutting edge projects and his apparently clean get-away, he remains the subject of conspiracy theories about what the Germans were really up to with their advanced weapons programs. These theories get quite fantastic, but the evidence for them is non-existent. Still, people love conspiracies and 'secrets,' so the stories likely never will die.

Hans Kammler, shrouded in mystery and with his hands deep in the most advanced research of his day, invariably turns up as the protagonist in such activities, perhaps pulling off his disappearing act by riding to another century or dimension in 'Die Glocke' (the 'Bell'), a mythical advanced transportation device..

A project that could have been the true origin of the Nazi UFO myth, is "Die Glocke" or in English, "The Bell", believed to have been Nazi Germany’s famed 'Wunderwaffe' or Wonder Weapon.

The project at the end of the war disappeared from the scene, along with SS General Hans Kammler, in charge of the secret projects of the Third Reich, and the last Ju-390. Whether they disappeared together, remains speculation.

It was the culmination of Nazi Germany’s brightest scientific minds.  The same people who created the V1 and V2 rockets (the V2 being the first manmade object to leave our atmosphere and plunge into the cold depths of space) are also thought to have been involved in the development of a weapon so terrible that some accounts describe factions of these scientists refusing to release technical plans to Nazi leaders for fear of what might be done with the technology.

The Bell, however, is a complete mystery, though there is no shortage of conspiracy surrounding it.

For the record, no one really knows what 'Wunderwaffe' actually was, or even if Nazi Germany was really developing anything other than conventional weaponry.  Most mainstream science and historical experts are adamant that the V series rockets were the pinnacle of German technology at the time, and that the Bell is a simple urban legend.

Some German scientists have gone on record stating that the machine was designed to warp space-time and to allow the SS to travel backward through time.

So, did Nazi scientists develop and build a time machine?  

There are  reports that several top SS Officers and scientists disappeared without a trace just prior to the end of the war.....

That is the basic story, and it hasn't changed since the war. Until recently, that is. Simply repeating these stories makes you appear to be on the fringe, but one must understand the theories to discount them - and see if there indeed is any grain of truth to them. And, in this field, there are lots of such grains that taken together are fascinating, but do not add up to much.

Researchers are still trying to piece everything together, but the picture is becoming clearer and a bit more elaborate than the common sketchy (and satisfying) tale of Nazi bungling failure. This is a story of a shadowy program which still isn't completely understood, led by that even shadowier figure, Dr. Hans Kammler.

Background

This is a story of a major war criminal who got away. General Dr Ing. Hans (Heinz) Friedrich Karl Franz Kammler was one of the chief architects of Nazi 'special projects.' He was in charge of the ballistic missile and jet aircraft programs. More chillingly, he was in charge of the concentration camps. The infamous gas chambers and crematoria at the camps were as much his doing as anybody's. He was in charge of designing and building the camps across Europe. Many Nazis gained notoriety after the war when their crimes were exposed, but Kammler remains largely unknown to this day. And, from some perspectives, Kammler was the biggest fish of them all. Had he been brought to trial, he almost certainly would have received the death sentence at the first Nuremberg tribunal, and it would have been carried out.

May 1945 was a chaotic time in Germany, giving anyone with a place to go ample opportunities to get there without being apprehended. And Hans Kammler still had the means even at that late date to get wherever he wanted to go in complete secrecy. Kammler did manage to disappear at the end of the war, which is a bit more difficult to achieve than it sounds, especially for someone as prominent as him. Some perfunctory searches were made for him, but people said he went here, others said he went there; he was supposed to attend a conference in this city or that on certain dates and never showed up - none of which made any sense at all and led nowhere. It was almost as if there were a deliberate, organized campaign to obscure his trail. Kammler simply was there one day and gone the next. He went somewhere - his body never was found and there was absolutely no evidence from any source that he perished. They've been able to ascertain the end of Martin Bormann and Dr. Mengele, but not Kammler. Now, at last, there may be a slender clue as to exactly where he went and what he was worried about in those last frantic days, indeed, a place he never would have been found - that was his destination.

What is of interest is that Kammler was in charge of the underground facilities where Nazi war production moved at the end of the war. He was given this authority by Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and Armaments Minister Albert Speer. Almost all of those underground facilities are well-known and now empty. However, there also have been what can best be called 'legends' of vast underground facilities that never were found and may, in addition, have served as a sort of shelter for certain Nazis and their SS guards at the end of the war. There is no use pointing to sources for these tales, as any sources for this are without sources themselves and just uncorroborated stories. The typical location for these 'redoubts' are usually placed deep in Poland, which is a convenient location for such tales because western researchers haven't been able to examine them until recently and the area is vast and often desolate. The stories are often embellished by the presence of skeletons of SS guards at the entrances, still holding their rifles.....

To 
return to known reality, the main work of producing planes and other armament was done at the Mittelwerk facility in the Kohnstein, which is fairly well known. However, there were many other underground facilities, developed as the Allied bombardment made surface production hazardous. One of these underground facilities was located in the Bergkristall (literally, 'rock crystal') site in Austria, which is near the mountain town St Georgen an der Gusen. It is a fairly typical small Austrian mountain town, however, it has quite a history.

Adolf Hitler, of course, was from Austria. St. Georgen an der Gusen is not far from where he grew up. Hitler's bizarre strategy during late 1944 and 1945 of allocating huge forces desperately needed elsewhere to guard that region often has been questioned. Now, researchers may be uncovering a very dark strategic reason for him to switch Panzer Armies in that direction when the Soviets only were 60 miles from Berlin. There is no evidence yet of anything happening in these mountains of any relevance to the last days of the war. However, the possibility does exist that researchers may uncover something important.

The New Discovery

It always has been known that the Nazis had a major underground weapons production facility at B8 Bergkristall. It churned out the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter plane, which was operational by late 1944 and proved better in various performance categories than any Allied fighter. It could not turn the tide of the war, but the Me 262 was cutting edge technology and a giant leap beyond what the Allies were fielding at the time (the Allies did have some jets of their own such as the British Gloster Meteor, but no Allied jet saw any action beyond patrolling against V-1 buzz bombs). There was a lot going on just behind the surface of the placid alpine town named Sankt Georgen an der Gusen.

B8 Bergkristall is near the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. Mauthausen provided the slave labor that kept the Bergkristall factory humming along. There were a lot of slave laborers - up to 320,000 - and many were killed in various ways. The nearby town was the site of the Gusen 2 sub-camp which supplied the factory laborers.

The B8 Bergkristall - Esche II program was located in a series of caves (some 40 square miles are known) carved out of the mountains near Sankt Georgen an der Gusen. That is a very small town in the middle of the mountains. The census gave it a population of 1,429 in 1939. Even today, it only has a few thousand inhabitants. It remained under Nazi control until the final surrender.

The underground plants were so extensive that it was difficult to uncover all of them. The Nazis certainly were not forthcoming about them during or after the war. The Soviets were in charge of the area for the decade after the war, until 1955, but they did not seem particularly interested in exploring dusty old caves. They examined what they found, made sure it was harmless, and moved on. They do not appear to have launched any major expeditions to search for caves that weren't already disclosed to them.

There are unexplained radioactive readings in the area that may be natural phenomena, but also could be man-made. If the latter, they could only come from the Nazi programme, as no (other) nuclear research has been performed in the area. If so, this would not be the first time that suspected radioactive material from Germany was found, as in June 2011, there was atomic waste - 126,000 barrels of it - found in an abandoned salt mine near Hanover.

Nazi nuclear waste from Hitler's secret A-bomb programme found in mine
More than 126,000 barrels of nuclear material lie rotting over 2,000 feet below ground in an old salt mine
By Allan Hall for MailOnline 
13 July 2011  
German nuclear experts believe they have found nuclear waste from Hitler’s secret atom bomb programme in a crumbling mine near Hanover.

Rumour has it that the remains of nuclear scientists who worked on the Nazi programme are also there, their irradiated bodies burned in secret by S.S. men sworn to secrecy.

A statement by a boss of the Asse II nuclear fuel dump, just discovered in an archive, said how in 1967 'our association sank radioactive wastes from the last war, uranium waste, from the preparation of the German atom bomb.'

This has sent shock waves through historians who thought that the German atomic programme was nowhere near advanced enough in WW2 to have produced nuclear waste in any quantities.

It has also triggered a firestorm of uncertainty among locals, especially given Germany’s paranoia post-Fukushima.

Germany was the first western nation to announce the closure of all its atomic power plants following the disaster at the Japanese facility following the catastrophic earthquake and Tsunami in March.

There are calls to remove all the nuclear material stored within the sealed site but this would cost billions of pounds.

Yet the thought of Nazi atomic bomb material stored underground has made headlines across Germany - and the country’s Greenpeace movement has backed a call for secret documents relating to the dump to be released to the state parliament from sealed archives in Berlin.

It was in January of 1939, nine months before the outbreak of the Second World War, that German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann published the results of an historic experiment about nuclear fission.

The German "Uranium Project" began in earnest shortly after Germany’s invasion of Poland in September.

Army physicist Kurt Diebner led a team tasked to investigate the military applications of fission. By the end of the year the physicist Werner Heisenberg had calculated that nuclear fission chain reactions might be possible.

Although the war hampered their work, by the fall of the Third Reich in 1945 Nazi scientists had achieved a significant enrichment in samples of uranium.

Mark Walker, a US expert on the Nazi programme said: "'Because we still don’t know about these projects, which remain cloaked in WW2 secrecy, it isn’t safe to say the Nazis fell short of enriching enough uranium for a bomb. Some documents remain top secret to this day.

"Claims that a nuclear weapon was tested at Rügen in October 1944 and again at Ohrdruf in March 1945 leave open a question, did they or didn’t they?"'

Rügen is a Baltic island and Ohrdruf a top-secret Bunker complex in Thuringia where local legend has it that an A-bomb was tested by the Nazis in the dying days of the war.

Some researchers have begun excavating in the area, led by filmmaker Andreas Sulzer of nearby Linz (Hitler's home town). They have found what they believe is a hidden chamber where the nuclear research took place and was purposefully buried at the end of the war - right around the time when Kammler went missing. It is known that the Nazis engaged in all sorts of end-times activity to hide and preserve things. There is little question that burying the traces at Sankt Georgen an der Gusen was part of that activity. The only questions remaining are why they bothered, and what might still be found there.

Bergkristall

The hidden Bergkristall tunnels that are being examined now can only be entered after removing dirt, concrete and granite plates used to cover up all traces of the project. Filmmaker Sulzer had his team dig through a good six feet of clay at the site of a shooting club, only to find a manufactured granite cap underneath all that dirt. It could be seen to be covering some steep steps leading into the mountain. None of this had been known before. Something - it could be anything - is inside that mountain. A geological survey suggests a large underground cavern. It is easy to say, "Oh, it is nothing, probably just a guard post or SS quarters or something." Perhaps. However, someone went to an awful lot of trouble not only to bury this facility, but to hide it so well that it stayed hidden for 70 years with people literally walking right on top of it on a daily basis. That took some motivation.

Sulzer followed proper procedure and informed the town of his finds, which quickly contacted the Heritage Office. The police ultimately halted excavations, demanding a permit which the researchers did not have. Naturally, this deepens the mystery. However, if there is something there, it ultimately will be found. The prestigious Graz Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Research on War Consequences will, together with the province of Upper Austria, continue the excavations, under the auspices of the Environment Councillor Rudi Anschober, at a date to be determined.

 There may be nothing there. But why not have a look?

 - James Bjorkman
29 December 2014

In his book "Der letzte Zeuge" ["The Last Witness" subtitled "I was Hitler’s switchboard operator, messenger and bodyguard"] Rochus Misch wrote regarding the German atomic bomb:

"I remember, for example, reading a message on the state of our atomic bomb development. It said that research by the Americans was three quarters of a year behind our German program. But I knew Hitler’s attitude towards the nuclear bomb: 'With that weapon we will not win the war.'

"Of that he was convinced.

"The Western Allies had threatened to gather 15,000 aircraft, in case we used the atomic bomb, down in North Africa and from there they would bombard Germany with poison gas.

"Gas attacks were something that Hitler had experienced in the First World War and they terrified him. For such devastation he emphasized that he could not take responsibility. And so the use of a [German] atomic bomb [against the Allies] was something that he ruled out completely."

The Allies had already demonstrated a total willingness to use vicious tactics and to violate the Hague Rules of War which they solemnly had signed. They had already killed one million German civilians by deliberate terror bombing, designed to cause civilian mass misery and terror.

The purpose of the area bombardment of cities was laid out in a British Air Staff paper, dated 23 September 1941:

"The ultimate aim of an attack on a town area is to break the morale of the population which occupies it. To ensure this, we must achieve two things: first, we must make the town physically uninhabitable and, secondly, we must make the people conscious of constant personal danger. The immediate aim, is therefore, twofold, namely, to produce (i) destruction and (ii) fear of death“.

In October 1943 [Bomber] Harris [the British Air Marshal] urged the government to be honest with the public regarding the purpose of the bombing campaign. To Harris, his complete success at Hamburg [35,000 civilians killed] confirmed the validity and necessity of his methods, and he urged that “the aim of the Combined Bomber Offensive…should be unambiguously stated [as] the destruction of German cities, the killing of German workers, and the disruption of civilized life throughout Germany…. the destruction of houses, public utilities, transport and lives, the creation of a refugee problem on an unprecedented scale, and the breakdown of morale both at home and at the battle fronts by fear of extended and intensified bombing, are accepted and intended aims of our bombing policy".

Did Germany "Have" "The Bomb" but not use it?

That is exactly what this book in German by engineer Peter Brüchmann, the son of an German wartime engineer who worked on the German A-Bomb,  says.

"Top Secret: Amerikas verschwiegener Triumph: Die Erbeutung der deutschen Atombomben 1945. Erinnerungen und Enthüllungen eines Zeitzeugen" [Top Secret: America’s Triumph Kept Secret: The capture of German Atomic Bombs in 1945. Memories and Revelations of a Witness] states two German A-bombs were captured in Thuringia by General George Patton’s troops, and they are what the Americans dropped in August 1945 on Hiroshima and Nagasaki! The first truly US-built A-bomb was in 1947!

The book also claims that both the German and the American Manhattan Project scientists were fearful for years that an atomic reaction could ignite the earth’s atmosphere and burn up the whole planet in a gigantic fire! It also states the Germans successfully ignited atomic bombs over the Baltic Sea.

All this confirms what Joseph Farrell PhD, Oxford University, has stated in his many books, such as: "Reich Of The Black Sun: Nazi Secret Weapons and The Cold War Allied Legend" (March 2005) and "The SS Brotherhood of the Bell: Nasa’s Nazis, JFK, and Majic-12" (August 2006)

The German bomb had too much radioactivity and not enough blast, but it was good for destroying wooden Japanese houses. It did not destroy steel-reinforced buildings.

Only wooden Japanese houses with internal walls, literally made of paper, were destroyed in Hiroshima after the German bomb.

The Reich survived by offering these primitive atomic bombs (= low-blast) to the Americans because Truman wanted to 1) scare the Soviets with some weapon that seemed big and 2) he wanted to end the war with Japan quickly.

The US expected one million American dead and wounded in vicious house-to-house fighting on the main island of Honshu against a foe who was determined to fight like a Samurai to the death for his emperor.

There were to be two American invasions of Japan. The first would be from the south in November 1945 and the second would be from the east in March 1946.

The Americans wanted the Soviets to join the war against Japan and create a second front in the north. The Americans were certain that the threat of a Soviet invasion of the Japanese home islands would be sufficient to compel the Japanese to surrender.

The Soviets assured the Americans they would declare war on Japan and invade Japanese-occupied Manchuria on 15 August.

The Americans planned to drop an untested uranium bomb on Japan, also on 15 August.

The Soviets planned to attack Japanese-occupied Manchuria three months before the scheduled American invasion of southern Japan. By the time the Americans could invade Japan, the Soviets could be in control of the Japanese north home island of Hokkaido and a large part of Honshu Island. 

The Americans feared a Soviet conquest of Japan and a Soviet-controlled communist Japanese puppet state. 

In the hope of precipitating a Japanese surrender before the Soviets declared war on Japan, the Americans decided to drop the atom bomb earlier than scheduled, on or before 8 August.

Truman hoped also to intimidate the Soviets with the atom bomb.

The Americans dropped the uranium bomb on Japan  on Hiroshima  on 6 August.

The Soviets feared that before they invaded Manchuria the Japanese would surrender to the Americans.

The Japanese asked the Soviets to mediate an armistice for them with the Americans. The Soviets refused and invaded Manchuria on 9 August, six days ahead of schedule.

The Americans demanded full and unconditional surrender by the Japanese. But the Japanese would not agree.

The Americans dropped a second atomic bomb on Japan, on Nagasaki, at mid-day on 9 August  - eleven hours after the Soviets invaded Japanese-held Manchuria.

The second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki to keep the pressure on the Japanese to surrender unconditionally.

On the following day, 10 August, the Japanese offered to surrender. This prompted victory celebrations in various parts of the world. But the Japanese were not prepared to surrender unconditionally. 

On 14  August, the Americans conducted the biggest bombing raid of the Pacific War, with more than 1,000 planes, attacking Japan throughout the day and night.

On the same day, the Japanese informed the Americans of their intention to surrender unconditionally.

The Japanese broadcast their decision to accept Allied demands on 15 August -   six days after the Soviets invaded Manchuria and the Americans dropped their second American atomic bomb on Japan.

The Americans called for a cease-fire and scheduled formal surrender proceedings for 2 September in Tokyo Bay.

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